tm216856-1_s3asr - none - 4.5000182s
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 18, 2021
Registration Nos. 333-       
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
SAFEHOLD INC.
SAFEHOLD OPERATING PARTNERSHIP LP
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland (Safehold Inc.)
Delaware (Safehold Operating Partnership LP)
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
30-0971238 (Safehold Inc.)
37-1840624 (Safehold Operating Partnership LP)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
1114 Avenue of the Americas, 39th Floor
New York, New York 10036
(212) 930-9400
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Jay Sugarman
Chief Executive Officer
Safehold Inc.
1114 Avenue of the Americas, 39th Floor
New York, New York 10036
(212) 930-9400
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Julian T.H. Kleindorfer, Esq.
Lewis W. Kneib, Esq.
Alexa M. Berlin, Esq.
Latham & Watkins LLP
355 South Grand Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90071
(213) 485-1234
APPROXIMATE DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF PROPOSED SALE TO THE PUBLIC: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective on filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☒

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If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Safehold Inc.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
Safehold Operating Partnership LP
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)2(B) of the Securities Act.
Safehold Inc.
Safehold Operating Partnership LP
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of each class of
securities to be registered
Amount to be
registered
Proposed maximum
offering price
per unit
Proposed maximum
aggregate offering
price
Amount of
registration fee
Safehold Inc. Common Stock
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)(3)
(4)
Safehold Inc. Preferred Stock
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)(3)
(4)
Safehold Inc. Debt Securities
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(4)
Safehold Inc. Depositary Shares
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(4)
Safehold Inc. Warrants(5)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(4)
Safehold Inc. Rights
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(4)
Safehold Inc. Units(6)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(4)
Safehold Inc. Guarantees of Debt Securities(7)
(8)
n/a
n/a
(7)
Safehold Operating Partnership LP Debt Securities(7)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(1)(2)
(4)
(1)
Omitted pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.E.
(2)
An unspecified number of securities or aggregate initial offering price, as applicable, is being registered as may from time to time be offered at unspecified prices. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable on exercise, conversion or exchange of other securities or that are issued in units or represented by depositary shares.
(3)
Includes rights to acquire common stock or preferred stock of Safehold Inc. under any shareholder rights plan then in effect, if applicable under the terms of any such plan.
(4)
In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrant is deferring payment of the entire registration fee.
(5)
The warrants covered by this Registration Statement may be preferred share warrants, common share warrants or depositary share warrants.
(6)
In U.S. dollars or the equivalent thereof denominated in one or more foreign currencies or units of two or more foreign currencies or composite currencies (such as European Currency Units).
(7)
Safehold Inc. may fully and unconditionally guarantee the payment of principal of and premium (if any) and interest on debt securities offered by Safehold Operating Partnership LP.
(8)
No separate consideration will be received for the guarantees. Pursuant to Rule 457(n), no separate fee is payable with respect to the guarantees being registered hereby.

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PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_safehold-4c.jpg]
Safehold Inc.
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Depositary Shares
Warrants
Rights
Units
Guarantees of Debt Securities
Safehold Operating Partnership LP
Debt Securities
We may offer and sell the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. Safehold Operating Partnership LP may offer from time to time debt securities in one or more series. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.
Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities to be offered, which may include limitations on actual or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve the status of Safehold Inc. as a real estate investment trust, or REIT. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.
We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, under the symbol “SAFE.” On February 17, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE was $83.91 per share.
INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ AND CONSIDER THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is February 18, 2021

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings as described in this prospectus. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”
We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.
Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” or “our company” mean Safehold Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with our consolidated subsidiaries, including Safehold Operating Partnership LP, a Delaware limited partnership, of which our wholly owned subsidiary is the sole general partner and to which we refer in this prospectus as our “operating partnership.” References in this prospectus to “iStar” refer to iStar Inc., our largest stockholder and the parent company of our manager, together with its subsidiaries. References in this prospectus to “our manager” refer to SFTY Manager LLC, our external manager and a wholly owned subsidiary of iStar. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable class or series of securities.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
Available Information
We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.
Our website address is www.safeholdinc.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.
This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC as provided above, or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.
Incorporation by Reference
The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed on February 11, 2021;

our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on February 11, 2021;

our Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A for our 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, filed with the SEC on April 3, 2020 (with respect to the information contained therein that is incorporated by reference in Part III of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019); and

the description of our common stock contained in Exhibit 4.1 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 (filed with the SEC on February 13, 2020), which updated the description thereof contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A initially filed with the SEC on June 19, 2017, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.
All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC (including our Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K), will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.
 
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You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:
Safehold Inc.
1114 Avenue of the Americas, 39th Floor
New York, New York 10036
Attention: Investor Relations Department
(212) 930-9400
Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
 
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THE COMPANY
We are a publicly traded company that operates our business through one reportable segment by acquiring, managing and capitalizing ground leases. We believe that our business has characteristics comparable to a high-grade, fixed income investment business, but with certain unique advantages. Relative to alternative fixed income investments generally, our ground leases typically benefit from built-in growth derived from contractual base rent increases (either at a specified percentage or consumer price index based, or both), and the opportunity to realize value from residual rights to take ownership of the buildings and other improvements on our land at no additional cost to us. We believe that these features offer us the opportunity to realize superior risk-adjusted total returns when compared to certain alternative highly-rated investments.
Ground leases generally represent the ownership of land underlying commercial real estate projects that is net leased on a long-term basis (base terms are typically 30 to 99 years, often with tenant renewal options) by the fee owner of the land (landlord) to the owners/operators of the real estate projects built thereon (“Ground Leases”), or what we refer to as a SafeholdTM. The property is generally leased on a triple net basis with the tenant generally responsible for taxes, maintenance and insurance as well as all operating costs and capital expenditures. Ground Leases typically provide that at the end of the lease term or upon tenant default and the termination of the Ground Lease upon such default, the land, building and all improvements revert to the landlord. We have become the industry leader in Ground Leases by demonstrating the value of the product to real estate investors, owners, operators and developers and expanding their use throughout major metropolitan areas.
We have a diverse portfolio of properties located in major metropolitan areas. All of the properties in our portfolio are subject to long-term leases consisting of Ground Leases and one master lease (covering five properties) that provide for contractual periodic rent escalations and in some cases percentage rent participations in gross revenues generated at the relevant properties.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SAFE.” We were incorporated in Maryland on March 9, 2017. We elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, commencing with the tax year ended December 31, 2017. We conduct all of our business and own all of our properties through the operating partnership, in what is commonly referred to as an “UPREIT” structure. The general partner of the operating partnership, one of our wholly owned subsidiaries, is the sole general partner of and owns an approximately 1% interest in the operating partnership. We are the only limited partner and own the remaining approximately 99% interest in the operating partnership.
We are managed by SFTY Manager LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of iStar, our largest stockholder, pursuant to a management agreement. We have no employees and rely on our manager to provide all services necessary for our operations. As of February 17, 2021, iStar owned 34,815,550 shares or approximately 65.38% of our outstanding common stock. We are party to a stockholder’s agreement with iStar that, among other things, limits iStar’s discretionary voting power with respect to its shares of our common stock to 41.9% of the voting power of our outstanding common stock, and requires that iStar vote all its shares that exceed 41.9% of our outstanding common stock in the same proportion as votes cast by our stockholders other than iStar.
Our principal executive offices are located at 1114 Avenue of the Americas, 39th Floor, New York, New York 10036. Our telephone number is (212) 930-9400. Our web site is www.safeholdinc.com. Information contained in or that can be accessed through our web site is not part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. The foregoing information about us is only a general summary and is not intended to be comprehensive. For additional information about us, you should refer to the information under “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation By Reference” in this prospectus.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.
 
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GUARANTOR DISCLOSURES
Safehold Inc. may guarantee debt securities of the operating partnership as described in “Description of Debt Securities.” Any such guarantees by Safehold Inc. will be full, irrevocable, unconditional and absolute joint and several guarantees to the holders of each series of such outstanding guaranteed debt securities. The Company owns all of its assets and conducts all of its operations through the operating partnership and the operating partnership is consolidated into the Company’s financial statements.
In March 2020, the SEC adopted amendments to Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X and created Rule 13-01 to simplify disclosure requirements related to certain registered securities. The amendments became effective on January 4, 2021. The Company and the operating partnership have filed this prospectus with the SEC registering, among other securities, debt securities of the operating partnership, which will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. As a result of the amendments to Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X, subsidiary issuers of obligations guaranteed by the parent are not required to provide separate financial statements, provided that the subsidiary obligor is consolidated into the parent company’s consolidated financial statements, the parent guarantee is “full and unconditional” and, subject to certain exceptions as set forth below, the alternative disclosure required by Rule 13-01 is provided, which includes narrative disclosure and summarized financial information. Accordingly, separate consolidated financial statements of the operating partnership have not been presented.
Furthermore, as permitted under Rule 13-01(a)(4)(vi) of Regulation S-X, we have excluded the summarized financial information for the operating partnership because the assets, liabilities and results of operations of the operating partnership are not materially different than the corresponding amounts in Safehold Inc.’s consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference herein, and management believes such summarized financial information would be repetitive and would not provide incremental value to investors.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless we indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to contribute the net proceeds from any sale of offered securities by us to our operating partnership. Our operating partnership will use the net proceeds from us or from any sale of offered securities by it as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
General
This prospectus describes the general terms of our common stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, and our charter and bylaws. When we offer to sell a particular class or series of common stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of common stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 400,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, which we refer to herein as the common stock. Our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board of directors and without any action by our stockholders, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of any class or series of our stock that we have authority to issue. As of February 17, 2021, 53,249,939 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding. Under Maryland law, stockholders are not generally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.
Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in our charter, each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote on all matters on which the stockholders of common stock are entitled to vote, including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of shares of common stock will vote together as a single class and will possess the exclusive voting power. Each of our directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our directors.
Holders of shares of common stock generally have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights and generally have no appraisal rights unless our board of directors determines that appraisal rights apply, with respect to all or any such classes or series of stock, to one or more transactions occurring after the date of such determination in connection with which holders of such shares would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights. Holders of shares of common stock generally have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company; however, we have granted contractual preemptive rights to certain stockholders, as discussed below under “Stockholders Agreements with Certain Investors.” Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as otherwise provided in our charter, shares of common stock have equal distribution, liquidation and other rights.
Power to Reclassify Our Unissued Shares of Stock
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of common or preferred stock into other classes or series of stock. Our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of common or preferred stock with terms and conditions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common and Preferred Stock
We believe the power of our board of directors to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of stock, to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of common or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common or preferred stock and thereafter to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the additional shares of common stock, will be available for issuance
 
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without further action by our stockholders, unless such approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, a new class or series may delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders. See “Material Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws — Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.”
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, our shares of stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. In addition, no more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of any taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made). To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy other requirements as well. See “Federal Income Tax Considerations — Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”
Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our shares of common stock and other outstanding shares of stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own, by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock (the common stock ownership limit), or 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our capital stock (the aggregate stock ownership limit). We refer to the common stock ownership limit and the aggregate stock ownership limit collectively as the ownership limits. A person or entity that, but for operation of the ownership limits or another restriction on ownership and transfer of our stock as described below, would beneficially own or be deemed to beneficially own, by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, shares of our stock and/or, if appropriate in the context, a person or entity that would have been the record owner of such shares of our stock is referred to as a prohibited owner.
The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause shares of stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock or 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of all classes or series of our stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, shares of our stock) by an individual or entity, could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own shares constructively in excess of the ownership limits.
Our board of directors may, in its sole and absolute discretion and subject to the receipt of such certain representations, covenants and undertakings deemed reasonably necessary by the board, prospectively or retroactively, exempt a person from the ownership limits and establish an excepted holder limit for such person. However, our board of directors may not exempt any person whose ownership of our outstanding stock would result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. In order to be considered by the board of directors for exemption, a person also must provide our board of directors with information and undertakings deemed satisfactory to our board of directors that such person’s ownership of stock in excess of the ownership limits would not cause us to own (directly or indirectly) an interest in a tenant that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code if the income derived by us (either directly or indirectly through one or more partnerships or limited liability companies) from such tenant for our taxable year during which such determination is being made would reasonably be expected to equal or exceed the lesser of (i) one percent (1%) of our gross income (as determined for purposes of Section 856(c) of the Code), or (ii) an amount that would cause us to fail to satisfy any of the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Code. The person also must agree that any violation or attempted violation of these restrictions will result in the automatic transfer to a trust of the
 
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shares of stock causing the violation. As a condition of its waiver, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or IRS ruling satisfactory to our board of directors with respect to our qualification as a REIT. We have granted waivers to each of iStar to own up to 67.5%, to SFTY Venture LLC (an affiliate of GIC Realty Private Limited) to own up to 15.0%, and UBS Financial Services to own up to 15.0% on behalf of customer accounts, of the outstanding shares of our common stock in the aggregate.
In connection with the waiver of the ownership limits, creating an excepted holder limit or at any other time, our board of directors may, in its sole and absolute discretion, from time to time increase or decrease the ownership limits subject to the restrictions in the paragraph above; provided, however, that the ownership limits may not be decreased or increased if, after giving effect to such decrease or increase, five or fewer persons could own or beneficially own in the aggregate, more than 49.9% in value of our shares then outstanding. Prior to the modification of the ownership limits, our board of directors may require such opinions of counsel, affidavits, undertakings or agreements as it may deem necessary or advisable in order to determine or ensure our qualification as a REIT. Reduced ownership limits will not apply to any person or entity whose percentage ownership in our shares of common stock or stock of all classes and series, as applicable, is in excess of such decreased ownership limits until such time as such person’s or entity’s percentage ownership of our common stock or stock of all classes and series, as applicable, equals or falls below the decreased ownership limits, but any further acquisition of shares of our common stock or stock of all classes and series, as applicable, in excess of such percentage ownership of our shares of common stock or total shares of stock will be in violation of the ownership limits.
Our charter further prohibits:

any person from beneficially or constructively owning (taking into account applicable attribution rules under the Code) shares of our stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT (including, without limitation, any person beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that would result in us owning (directly or indirectly) an interest in a tenant that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code if the income derived by us from such tenant would cause us to fail to satisfy any of the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Code); and

any person from transferring our shares of stock if such transfer would result in our shares of stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined, as a general matter, without reference to any attribution rules).
Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limits or any of the foregoing restrictions on ownership and transfer will be required to give written notice immediately to us (or, in the case of a proposed or attempted acquisition, at least 15 days prior written notice to us) and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our qualification as a REIT.
If any transfer of shares of our stock would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, such transfer will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. In addition, if any purported transfer of shares of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or such other limit established by our board of directors or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then generally that number of shares (rounded up to the nearest whole share) that would cause us to violate such restrictions will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary of the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable ownership limits, or our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT or the ownership and transfer restrictions described above, then our charter provides that the transfer of the shares will be null and void.
 
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Shares of stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, in the event of a gift, devise or other such transaction, the last reported sales price reported on the NYSE (or other applicable exchange) on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of stock to the trust) and (ii) the market price on the date we, or our designee, accepts such offer. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust pursuant to the clauses discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates, the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner but the trustee may reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions which have been paid to the prohibited owner and are owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. To the extent the prohibited owner would receive an amount for such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner would have been entitled to receive had the trustee sold the shares held in the trust to a third party, such excess shall be retained by the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary.
If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limitations set forth in the charter. Upon such sale, the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, in the event of a gift, devise or other such transaction, the last reported sales price reported on the NYSE (or other applicable exchange) on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of stock to the trust) and (ii) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee will reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions which have been paid to the prohibited owner and are owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the beneficiary of the trust and any dividend or other distribution paid to trustee shall be held in trust for the charitable beneficiary. In addition, if, prior to discovery by us that shares of stock have been transferred to a trust, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount will be paid to the trustee upon demand. The prohibited owner has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.
The trustee will be designated by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary of the trust, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares held in trust and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares held in trust. These rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the beneficiary of the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid prior to our discovery that shares of stock have been transferred to the trust will be paid by the recipient to the trustee upon demand. Any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid will be paid when due to the trustee.
Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

to rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.
However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.
In addition, if our board of directors determine that a proposed transfer would violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares of stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors will take such action as it deems or they deem advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem the shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.
 
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Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, is required to give us written notice, stating the stockholder’s name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the stockholder beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner must provide us with such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect of the stockholder’s beneficial ownership on our qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, each stockholder must provide us with such information as we may request in good faith in order to determine our qualification as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.
Any certificates, or written statements of information delivered in lieu of certificates, representing shares of our stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.
These restrictions on ownership and transfer will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to qualify as a REIT or that compliance with such provisions is no longer required for REIT qualification.
These ownership limits could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
CARET Units
We have created units of limited liability company interest in a subsidiary which we refer to as CARET Units that generally entitle holders to a share of cash distributions in respect of the capital appreciation above our investment basis on our ground lease assets received upon the sale of a ground lease, the sale of a combined property and certain non-recourse mortgage debt refinancings of a ground lease. The number of authorized CARET Units is a fixed amount. We have established an equity incentive plan providing for grants of CARET Units to our directors, officers and employees of our manager and other eligible participants representing up to 15% of all distributions made to holders of CARET Units. Such grants are subject to stock price hurdles (all of which have been satisfied as of December 31, 2020) and time-based service conditions. We own the remaining 85% of the CARET Units, and we may choose to sell a portion of them to third parties in the future, which would reduce our percentage interest (and indirectly the interest of our stockholders) in cash distributions in respect of CARET Units. Issuances of additional shares of our common stock will reduce an individual stockholder’s indirect interest in CARET Units, while the interests of CARET Unit holders are fixed. Conflicts of interest could arise between the interests of holders of CARET Units and holders of our common stock with respect to decisions of whether to issue additional common stock and extend, sell, hold or refinance a Ground Lease or combined property in the future.
Stockholders Agreements with Certain Investors
SFTY Venture LLC and SFTY VII-B, LLC.   We are a party to stockholder’s agreements with two institutional investors, SFTY Venture LLC and SFTY VII-B, LLC, each of whom made investments in us prior to our initial public offering, which provide the investors the right to:

SFTY Venture LLC:   purchase additional shares of our common stock up to an amount equal to 10% of future issuances of common stock by us in single issuances of at least $1 million, and on a quarterly basis in respect of other issuances. The purchase price paid by SFTY Venture LLC will generally be the same price as the price per share implied by the transaction that resulted in the relevant issuance. SFTY Venture LLC will also have the right to designate a non-voting board observer and participate as a co-investor in real estate investments for which we are seeking co-investment partners. The foregoing rights are conditioned on SFTY Venture LLC owning at least the lesser of (i) 5.0% of our outstanding common stock and (ii) common stock with a value of $50 million.

SFTY VII-B, LLC:   purchase additional shares of our common stock up to an amount equal to 4.0% of future issuances of common stock by us in single issuances of at least $1 million, and on a quarterly basis in respect of other issuances. The purchase price paid by SFTY VII-B, LLC will generally be the same price as the price per share implied by the transaction that resulted in the relevant issuance. SFTY VII-B, LLC will also have the right to designate one director as a nominee for
 
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election to our board. The foregoing rights are conditioned on SFTY VII-B, LLC owning the lesser of (i) 4.0% of our outstanding common stock and (ii) common stock with a value of $15.0 million.
iStar.   In connection with iStar’s $250.0 million equity investment in us in January 2019, we and iStar entered into a Stockholder’s Agreement, dated January 2, 2019, as amended from time to time, which we refer to as the iStar Stockholder’s Agreement. The iStar Stockholder’s Agreement provides that with respect to any matter presented for a vote or written consent of the holders of our common stock, iStar will vote all Excess Shares in the same proportions as the votes cast or consents delivered by holders of our common stock other than iStar. “Excess Shares” means the number of shares of our common stock owned by iStar from time to time that exceed 41.9% of our outstanding common stock at such time. These voting limitations will remain in effect until the first date on which iStar’s aggregate ownership of our common stock is less than 41.9% of the outstanding common stock.
The iStar Stockholder’s Agreement also provides that, notwithstanding the voting limitations described above, until January 2, 2022, iStar will cast all of its voting power in favor of three individuals who are independent of each of iStar and us within the meaning of the listing rules of the NYSE to serve as our directors.
Until June 30, 2022, without the prior consent of our independent directors, iStar and its affiliates shall not:

purchase or otherwise acquire legal or beneficial ownership of our common stock in excess of the ownership threshold then applicable to iStar and its subsidiaries;

solicit proxies or written consents of stockholders with respect to, or in any way participate in any proxy solicitation with respect to, the election or removal of directors that have not been approved and recommended by our independent directors or any other matter that has not been approved and recommended by us, otherwise conduct any non-binding referendum with respect to or participate in, advise or encourage any person in, any proxy contest or solicitation with respect to us not approved or recommended by our independent directors;

make any public disclosure, statement, comment or announcement, including with the filing or furnishing of any document with the SEC or any other governmental agency or to any journalist or analyst or the press or media (including social media), in support of the foregoing;

form, join or in any other way participate in a “partnership, limited partnership, syndicate or other group” within the meaning of Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act, with respect to any of our securities, or otherwise advise, encourage or participate in any effort by a third party with respect to the foregoing;

call a meeting of stockholders or initiate any stockholder proposal, or seek the removal of any director from our board (other than any director that is affiliated with iStar);

make any public statement or offer, propose to effect, or in any way assist or facilitate any other person to do so, with respect to any merger, consolidation, business combination, tender or exchange offer, sale or purchase of assets (other than in the ordinary course of operating our business in iStar’s capacity as our external manager), sale or purchase of securities (other than in connection with the Company’s capital raising activities), dissolution, liquidation, restructuring, recapitalization or similar transactions of or involving us or any of our subsidiaries;

take any action which could reasonably be expected to cause or require us to make a public announcement regarding any of the foregoing, or publicly request to amend, waive or terminate any of the foregoing; and

advise, assist, encourage or seek to persuade others to take any action with respect to any of the foregoing.
We also agreed that with respect to each issuance by us of our common stock with a value of at least $1.0 million, iStar will have the right, but not the obligation, to purchase from us additional shares of our common stock to maintain iStar’s percentage ownership of our common stock after giving effect to the issuance. iStar will pay the same purchase price as is paid by other purchasers in the issuance, disregarding any
 
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underwriting, placement agent or other fees and commissions borne by us. iStar will have this right so long as it owns at least 20% of our outstanding common stock. This preemptive right will not apply to issuances by us pursuant to equity incentive plans.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
General
This prospectus describes the general terms of our preferred stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the MGCL and our charter and bylaws. When we offer to sell a particular class or series of preferred stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, which we refer to herein as the preferred stock. As of February 17, 2021, we had no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding.
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of preferred stock into one or more classes or series of preferred stock. Prior to issuance of shares of each new class or series, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of each such class or series. As a result, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock that have priority over shares of our common stock with respect to dividends or other distributions or rights upon liquidation or with other terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests.
The specific terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series, including a prospectus supplement providing that preferred stock may be issuable upon the exercise of warrants or the exercise or conversion of other securities we issue. The description of preferred stock set forth below and the description of the terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the articles supplementary or other charter provisions relating to that class or series.
Under Maryland law, stockholders are not generally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.
The preferences and other terms of the preferred stock of each class or series will be fixed by the articles supplementary relating to such class or series. A prospectus supplement, relating to each class or series, will specify the terms of the class or series of preferred stock as follows:

the designation and par value of such class or series of preferred stock,

the number of shares of such class or series of preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of such class or series of preferred stock,

the dividend rate(s), period(s), and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to such class or series of preferred stock,

whether dividends on such class or series of preferred stock are cumulative or not and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on such class or series of preferred stock shall accumulate,

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for such class or series of preferred stock,

the provision for redemption, if applicable, of such class or series of preferred stock,

any listing of such class or series of preferred stock on any securities exchange,

the preemptive rights, if any, of such class or series of preferred stock,
 
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the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which shares such class or series of preferred stock will be convertible into shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock or other securities, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof),

a discussion of any additional material federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in such class or series of preferred stock,

any limitations on actual, beneficial and constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to assist us to preserve our status as a REIT,

the relative ranking and preferences of such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,

any limitations on issuance of any class or series of stock ranking senior to or on parity with such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,

any voting rights of such class or series of preferred stock, and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of such class or series of preferred stock.
Rank
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each class or series of preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, rank: (1) senior to all classes or series of our common stock, and to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking junior to such class or series of preferred stock; (2) on parity with any class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking on parity with such class or series of preferred stock; and (3) junior to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking senior to such class or series of preferred stock.
Conversion Rights
The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any shares of any class or series of preferred stock are convertible into shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock or other securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of our common stock or the number of shares of such other class or series of our stock or other securities into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof), the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of such class or series of preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of such class or series of preferred stock.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, we expect that each class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be subject to certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of such class or series of preferred stock set forth in our charter, including the articles supplementary for each such class or series. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any ownership limitations relating to such class or series. See “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” for a description of the restrictions on ownership and transfer applicable to shares of our common stock and to shares of our capital stock in the aggregate (including any and all classes or series of our preferred stock).
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
As used in this “Description of Debt Securities,” references to “we,” “our” or “us” refer either to Safehold Inc. or Safehold Operating Partnership LP, as the case may be, as the issuer of the applicable series of debt securities and not to any subsidiaries, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, and references to the “sole general partner” refer solely to Safehold OP GenPar LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, which is Safehold Inc.’s wholly owned subsidiary and the sole general partner of Safehold Operating Partnership LP.
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus, including the terms of any related guarantees. We will also indicate in the prospectus supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.
Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and you should read the indenture and debt securities carefully for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined in this prospectus have the meanings specified in the indenture.
General
The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of the board of directors of Safehold Inc. (with respect to debt securities of Safehold Inc.) or the board of directors of Safehold Inc., as the sole member of the sole general partner of Safehold Operating Partnership LP (with respect to debt securities of Safehold Operating Partnership LP) and set forth or determined in the manner provided in such resolution, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series, including any pricing supplement or term sheet.
Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, the indenture will designate U.S. Bank National Association as the trustee for the indenture with respect to one or more series of our debt securities. U.S. Bank National Association, or any other specified trustee, may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of our debt securities, and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to that series.
We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement, including any pricing supplement or term sheet, relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, to the extent applicable:

whether the issuer of the debt securities is Safehold Inc. or Safehold Operating Partnership LP,

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions),

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities,

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities,

the date or dates on which the principal on the debt securities is payable,
 
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the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date,

the place or places where principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be payable, the method of such payment, where debt securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to us relating to the debt securities may be delivered,

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities,

any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the debt securities shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation,

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations,

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof,

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities,

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount,

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be U.S. dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency,

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be made,

if payments of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined,

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or designated to be payable or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index,

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities or any guarantees,

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default (as defined below) described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities,

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities,

a discussion of any additional material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the debt securities,

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities,
 
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the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange,

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities,

whether the debt securities are entitled to the benefits of the guarantee of any guarantor, and whether any such guarantee is made on a senior or subordinated basis and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms of any such guarantee,

whether a person other than U.S. Bank National Association is to act as trustee,

the securities exchange, if any, on which the debt securities may be listed, and

any change in the right of the trustee or the right of the requisite holders to declare the principal amount of debt securities due and payable.
We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of, and any premium and interest on, any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Transfer and Exchange
Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary or DTC, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.
Certificated Debt Securities.   You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.
You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, and any premium and interest on, certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.
Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System.   Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary.
No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in
 
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control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) that could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Covenants
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.
Merger, Consolidation or Sale
We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to, any person (such person, a “successor person”), unless:
(1) we are the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than Safehold Inc. or Safehold Operating Partnership LP) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and
(2) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.
We must deliver to the trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an officer’s certificate to the foregoing effect and an opinion of counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with the indenture.
In the event of any transaction described in and complying with the conditions listed in the immediately preceding paragraphs in which we are not the continuing entity, the successor person formed or remaining shall succeed, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of ours, and we shall be discharged from our obligations under the debt securities and the indenture.
Guarantees
Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities issued by Safehold Operating Partnership LP will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Safehold Inc. These guarantees will be joint and several obligations of the guarantor. If a series of debt securities is so guaranteed, an indenture, or a supplemental indenture thereto, will be executed by the guarantor. The obligations of the guarantor under the guarantee will be limited as necessary to prevent that guarantee from constituting a fraudulent conveyance under applicable law. The terms of the guarantee will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Events of Default
The following events constitute Events of Default, unless otherwise provided by resolution of the board of directors, supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate:
(a) default in the payment of any interest on any debt security when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period);
(b) default in the payment of principal of any debt security at maturity;
(c) default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty by us under the debt security of that series or the indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to us by the trustee, or to us and the trustee by the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a notice of default;
 
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(d) certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us, or any guarantor;
(e) any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series, which is specified in a resolution of the board of directors, a supplemental indenture to the indenture or an officer’s certificate, in accordance with the applicable provisions of the indenture.
“Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.
No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our or our subsidiaries’ indebtedness outstanding from time to time.
If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then in every such case the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare the principal amount (or, if any securities of that series are discount securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such debt securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, will become immediately due and payable. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice in writing to our operating partnership and the trustee, may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.
The indenture provides that the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense that might be incurred by it in exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.
No holder of any debt security shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:
(a) such holder has previously given written notice to the trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the debt securities;
(b) the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities have made written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as trustee;
(c) such holder or holders have offered to the trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, claims, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred by the trustee in compliance with such request;
 
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(d) the trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and
(e) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the trustee during such 60-day period by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities.
Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, and any premium and interest on, that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.
The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the debt securities of any series and if it is known to a Responsible Officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each holder of the debt securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.
Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
Legal Defeasance.   The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, money and/or Foreign Government Obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, any premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.
This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.
Defeasance of Certain Covenants.   The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Merger, Consolidation or Sale” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, and

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series, or covenant defeasance.
The conditions include:

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, money and/or Foreign Government Obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or
 
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investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, any premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities, and

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.
Covenant Defeasance and Events of Default.   In the event we exercise our option to effect covenant defeasance with respect to any series of debt securities and the debt securities of that series are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of money and/or U.S. government obligations or money and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee will be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of the acceleration resulting from the Event of Default. In such a case, we would remain liable for those payments.
“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
Satisfaction and Discharge
The indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect (except as to surviving rights or registration of transfer or exchange of the debt securities, as expressly provided for in the indenture) as to all outstanding debt securities when:

either:

all the debt securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (except lost, stolen or destroyed debt securities which have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the trustee for cancellation; or

all debt securities not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation have become due and payable or will become due and payable at their maturity within one year, have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year, or are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to the legal defeasance provisions of the indenture, and we have irrevocably deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited with the trustee as trust funds in trust cash or noncallable U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such debt securities not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of debt securities which have become due and payable) or to the maturity date or redemption date, as the case may be;

we have paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable under the indenture by us; and

we have delivered to the trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in the indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture have been complied with.
Modification and Waiver
We and the trustee may modify and amend the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency,

to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Merger, Consolidation or Sale,”
 
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to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities; provided that the uncertificated debt securities are issued in registered form for purposes of Section 163(f) of the Code,

to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture,

to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series,

to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary,

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities,

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture,

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee,

to comply with requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act,

to reflect the release of a guarantor of the debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture, or

to add guarantors with respect to any or all of the debt securities or to secure any or all of the debt securities or the guarantees.
We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

reduce the principal amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver,

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security,

reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities,

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity,

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration),

make the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security payable in any currency other than that stated in the debt security,

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments,

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security, provided that such redemption is made at our operating partnership’s option, or

if the debt securities of that series are entitled to the benefit of a guarantee, release any guarantor of such series other than as provided in the indenture or modify the guarantee in any manner adverse to the holders.
Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series
 
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waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all of the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.
Regarding the Trustee
Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, U.S. Bank National Association will initially act as the trustee, registrar and paying agent for the debt securities, subject to replacement at our option as provided in the indenture.
If an Event of Default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will be required to use the same degree of care and skill a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee will become obligated to exercise any of its powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the required percentage under the indenture only after those holders have offered, and, if requested, provided the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it.
If the trustee becomes one of our creditors, it will be subject to limitations on its rights to obtain payment of claims or to realize on some property received for any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions with us. If, however, it acquires any conflicting interest, it must eliminate that conflict or resign.
No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders
No director, officer, employee, or stockholder will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities, the indenture, any guarantees or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each holder of debt securities by accepting a note waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the debt securities. The waiver may not be effective to waive liabilities under the federal securities laws.
Governing Law
The indenture, the debt securities and any guarantees will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement a description of any depositary shares, warrants, rights or units issued by us that may be offered and sold pursuant to this prospectus.
 
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MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Our Board of Directors
Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established, increased or decreased only by a majority of our entire board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number required by the MGCL nor, unless our bylaws are amended, more than 15.
Each of our directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Holders of shares of our common stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast in the election of directors at any meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present.
Removal of Directors
Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, any director or the entire board of directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. Cause means, with respect to any particular director, a conviction of a felony or a final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction holding that such director caused demonstrable, material harm to us through bad faith or active and deliberate dishonesty.
Business Combinations
Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” ​(including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock or an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation) or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any such business combination must generally be recommended by the board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (i) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding voting stock of the corporation and (ii) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder. These supermajority approval requirements do not apply if, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. The board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by it.
These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the statute, our board of directors has by resolution exempted business combinations between us and any other person and, consequently, the five-year prohibition and the supermajority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any person as described above. As a result, any person described above may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in
 
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the best interest of our stockholders without compliance by our company with the supermajority vote requirements and other provisions of the statute.
We cannot assure you our board of directors will not opt to be subject to such business combination provisions in the future. However, an alteration or repeal of the resolution described above will not have any effect on any business combinations that have been consummated or upon any agreements existing at the time of such modification or repeal. If our board of directors opts back into the business combination statute, the business combination statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.
Control Share Acquisitions
The MGCL provides that “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights except to the extent approved by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of such shares in the election of directors: (i) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition; (ii) an officer of the corporation; or (iii) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer, or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (a) one-tenth or more but less than one-third; (b) one-third or more but less than a majority; or (c) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, of ownership of, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders’ meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply to (i) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (ii) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.
Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. There is no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.
Subtitle 8
Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision
 
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in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions:

a classified board;

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; or

a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.
We have not elected to be subject to any of the provisions of Subtitle 8. Moreover, our charter provides that, without the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by our stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, we may not elect to be subject to any of the provisions of Subtitle 8.
Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws
Except for amendments to the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors, the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares of stock and the vote required to amend these provisions (each of which must be advised by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter), our charter generally may be amended only with the approval of our board of directors and the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, our board of directors, without stockholder approval, has the power under our charter to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we are authorized to issue, to authorize us to issue authorized but unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock into one or more classes or series of stock and set the terms of such newly classified or reclassified shares. See “Description of Common Stock — Power to Reclassify Our Unissued Shares of Stock” and “Description of Common Stock — Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common and Preferred Stock.”
Our board of directors has the exclusive power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws.
Dissolution of Our Company
The dissolution of our company must be declared advisable by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Exclusive Forum
Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that Court does not have jurisdiction, the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, is the sole and exclusive forum for: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any of our directors or executive officers or other employees us or our stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or executive officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any or any of our directors or executive officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
Meetings of Stockholders
Under our bylaws, annual meetings of stockholders must be held each year at a date, time and place determined by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by the chairman of
 
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our board of directors, our chief executive officer, our president and our board of directors. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures specified in our bylaws and provided the information and certifications required by our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of a special meeting of stockholders may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting.
Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (i) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (ii) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (iii) by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record as of the record date for the meeting, at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other business and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.
With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only (i) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (ii) provided that the meeting has been called in accordance with our bylaws for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record as of the record date for the meeting, at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.
Although our bylaws do not give our board of directors any power to disapprove stockholder nominations for the election of directors or proposals recommending certain action, they may have the effect of precluding a contest for the election of directors or the consideration of stockholder proposals if proper procedures are not followed and of discouraging or deterring a third party from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors or to approve its own proposal without regard to whether consideration of such nominees or proposals might be harmful or beneficial to us and our stockholders.
Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws
Our charter and bylaws and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders, including restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and advance notice requirements for director nominations and stockholder proposals. Likewise, if the provision in the bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were rescinded, if we were to opt into the business combination provisions of the MGCL, or if our stockholders were to approve our election to be subject to a classified board or other provisions of Subtitle 8, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.
Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Executive Officers’ Liability
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that was established by a final judgment and was material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision and eliminates the liability of our directors and executive officers to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former
 
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directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer in a suit by or in the right of the corporation, in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to the corporation or in any proceeding charging improper personal benefit in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by the corporation or in its right, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.
In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.
Our charter and bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

any present or former director or executive officer who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity;

any individual who, while a director or executive officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity: or

any individual who served any predecessor of our company in a similar capacity, who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in such capacity.
Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers providing for the indemnification by us for certain liabilities and expenses incurred as a result of actions brought, or threatened to be brought, against (i) our directors and executive officers and (ii) our executive officers who are former members, managers, stockholders, directors, limited partners, general partners, officers or controlling persons of our predecessor in their capacities as such. Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
 
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Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
Subject to certain exceptions, our charter provides that no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the aggregate outstanding shares of our stock. For a fuller description of this and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, see “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
REIT Qualification
Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to be qualified as a REIT. Our charter also provides that our board of directors may determine that compliance with one or more of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.
 
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FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our election to be taxed as a REIT and this offering of our capital stock. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Safehold Inc. and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

the Code;

current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code, or the Treasury Regulations;

the legislative history of the Code;

administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS; and

court decisions;
in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.
You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

potential changes in applicable tax laws.
Taxation of Our Company
General.   We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our initial taxable year ended December 31, 2017. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized or will be able to operate in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “— Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.
 
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Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this offering of our capital stock and our election to be taxed as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2017 we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. In addition, if we are treated as a “successor” of iStar (within the meaning of Treasury Regulations Section 1.856-8(c)(2)) and iStar’s REIT qualification were terminated or revoked, we would be prohibited from electing to be taxed as a REIT until the fifth calendar year following the year in which iStar’s REIT qualification was lost. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described herein may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.
Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

First, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property. See “— Foreclosure Property.”

Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

Fifth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset test), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as
 
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described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

Ninth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations and are not qualified REIT subsidiaries, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” described below, generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

Tenth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “— Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

Eleventh, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

Twelfth, if we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined under applicable Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or is due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.
We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.
Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.   The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:
(1)
that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
(2)
that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;
(3)
that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;
 
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(4)
that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;
(5)
that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;
(6)
not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and
(7)
that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.
The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.
We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7), inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, then except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “— Failure to Qualify.”
In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.
Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries.   In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such a limited liability company), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of our operating partnership, including our operating partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. A brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships is set forth below in “— Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”
We intend for our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships to operate in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize
 
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our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In such a case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.
We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through wholly-owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal income tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “— Asset Tests.”
Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.   We and our operating partnership own an interest in an entity that has elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiary, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary, or a TRS, is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. For example, where we acquire a commercial real estate property to create a Ground Lease to be held by us and a leasehold interest that we will seek to sell to a third party, such leasehold interest may be held by a TRS so that a subsequent sale would not be treated as a prohibited transaction. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a taxable REIT subsidiary or as receiving any income that the taxable REIT subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by the taxable REIT subsidiary is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes dividend income to the extent distributions received from a taxable REIT subsidiary are paid from the taxable REIT subsidiary’s current or accumulated earnings and profits. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “— Asset Tests.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions. For any taxable year beginning in 2019 or 2020, the 30% limitation has been increased to a 50% limitation, provided that for partnerships the 50% limitation applies for any taxable year beginning in 2020 only. Taxpayers may elect to use their 2019 adjusted taxable income for purposes of computing their 2020 limitation. See “— Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our taxable REIT subsidiaries to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.
Ownership of Interests in Subsidiary REITs.   We own and may acquire direct or indirect interests in one or more entities that have elected or will elect to be taxed as REITs under the Code (each, a “Subsidiary REIT”). A Subsidiary REIT is subject to the various REIT qualification requirements and other limitations described herein that are applicable to us. If a Subsidiary REIT were to fail to qualify as a REIT, then (i) that Subsidiary REIT would become subject to U.S. federal income tax and (ii) the Subsidiary REIT’s failure to qualify could have an adverse effect on our ability to comply with the REIT income and asset tests, and thus could impair our ability to qualify as a REIT unless we could avail ourselves of certain relief provisions.
Income Tests.   We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income
 
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(excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing. For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.
Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by a mortgage on real property. If we receive interest income with respect to a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and other property, and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property on the date that we acquired or originated the mortgage loan, then, subject to the exception described below, the interest income will be apportioned between the real property and the other property, and our income from the loan will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test only to the extent that the interest is allocable to the real property. If a loan is secured by both real property and personal property and the fair market value of the personal property does not exceed 15% of the fair market value of all real and personal property securing the loan, the loan is treated as secured solely by the real property for purposes of these rules. Even if a loan is not secured by real property or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test. In certain cases, the terms of a negotiated Ground Lease transaction may be determined to have a financing component pursuant to which we may be considered as receiving interest income. To the extent all or a portion of a Ground Lease was treated as a financing for tax purposes, we believe such financing should be considered as secured by real property because of our ability to take back the leasehold interest upon default under the Ground Lease, and therefore such treatment should not adversely impact our ability to satisfy the REIT gross income tests.
Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales or if it is based on the net income of a tenant which derives substantially all of its income with respect to such property from subleasing of substantially all of such property, to the extent that the rents paid by the subtenants would qualify as rents from real property if we earned such amounts directly;

Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;
 
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Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a taxable REIT subsidiary; and

We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a taxable REIT subsidiary (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants, without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”
We are currently treated as the sole owner of our operating partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We generally do not intend, and the general partner of our operating partnership does not intend, to permit our operating partnership to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that the failure will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we generally have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.
From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.
To the extent our taxable REIT subsidiaries pay dividends or interest, our allocable share of such dividend or interest income will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, gross income test (except that our allocable share of such interest would also qualify under the 75% gross income test to the extent the interest is paid on a loan that is adequately secured by real property).
We will monitor the amount of the dividend and other income from our taxable REIT subsidiaries and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other nonqualifying income, within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.
If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:
 
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following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.
It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “— Failure to Qualify” below. As discussed above in “— General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.
Prohibited Transaction Income.   Any gain that we realize on the sale of property (other than any foreclosure property) held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including our share of any such gain realized by our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiary partnerships, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. We intend for our operating partnership to hold its properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring, developing and owning its properties and to make occasional sales of the properties as are consistent with our investment objectives. We do not intend, and do not intend to permit our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships, to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions. However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a taxable REIT subsidiary, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.
Penalty Tax.   Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code.
We do not believe we have been, and do not expect to be, subject to this penalty tax, although any rental or service arrangements we enter into from time to time may not satisfy the safe-harbor provisions described above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our taxable REIT subsidiaries.
Asset Tests.   At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property or on both real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt
 
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with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs, and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease.
Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.
Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe harbor, securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a taxable REIT subsidiary. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.
Fourth, not more than 20% of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. We and our operating partnership may own interests in companies that elect, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our taxable REIT subsidiaries has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.
Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).
We believe our holdings of Ground Leases and other assets comply and will continue to comply with the foregoing REIT asset requirements, and we intend to monitor compliance with such tests on an ongoing basis. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be successful in this effort. Moreover, the values of some of our assets, including securities of TRSs or other non-publicly traded investments, may not be susceptible to a precise determination and are subject to change in the future. Furthermore, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for U.S. federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset tests. As an example, certain Ground Leases we enter into may, in certain circumstances, be determined to have a financing component. To the extent all or a portion of a Ground Lease were treated as a loan for tax purposes, we believe such loan should be considered as secured by real property because of our ability to take back the leasehold interest and any improvements thereon upon default under the Ground Lease, and therefore such treatment should not adversely impact our ability to satisfy the REIT asset tests. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that certain of our Ground Lease assets do not meet the requirements of the REIT asset tests.
In addition, we may acquire certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in pass-through entities that directly or indirectly own real property. Revenue Procedure 2003-65, or the Revenue Procedure, provides a safe harbor pursuant to which mezzanine loans meeting the requirements of the safe harbor will be treated by the IRS as real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests. In addition, any interest derived from such mezzanine loans will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the
 
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75% gross income test (described above). Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. The mezzanine loans that we acquire may not meet all of the requirements of the safe harbor. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of such assets as real estate assets or the interest generated by these loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test (described above).
The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any partnership or qualified REIT subsidiary) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership that owns such securities). Also, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.
Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.
Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our operating partnership’s overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.
Annual Distribution Requirements.   To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders each year in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

90% of our REIT taxable income; and

90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.
For these purposes, our REIT taxable income is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.
In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset,
 
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in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “— General.”
Except as provided below, a taxpayer’s deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of its taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. For any taxable year beginning in 2019 or 2020, the 30% limitation has been increased to a 50% limitation, provided that for partnerships the 50% limitation applies for any taxable year beginning in 2020 only. Taxpayers may elect to use their 2019 adjusted taxable income for purposes of computing their 2020 limitation. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years, subject to special rules applicable to partnerships. If we or any of our subsidiary partnerships are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We believe that we or any of our subsidiary partnerships that are subject to this interest expense limitation will be eligible to make this election.
We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential — i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. This preferential dividend limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a publicly offered REIT. However, Subsidiary REITs we may own from time to time may not be publicly offered REITs. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount. We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. In this regard, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership authorizes the general partner of our operating partnership to take such steps as may be necessary to cause our operating partnership to distribute to its partners an amount sufficient to permit us to meet these distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligation.
We anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between (i) the actual receipt of cash, including the receipt of distributions from any partnership subsidiaries and (ii) the inclusion of items in income by us for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, certain Ground Lease transactions we enter into may be determined to have a financing component, which may result in a timing difference between the receipt of cash and the recognition of income for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, certain amounts can generate mismatches between net taxable income and available cash, such as rental real estate financed through debt which requires some or all of available cash flow to service borrowings. In certain circumstances, our deductions of interest on such borrowings could be limited for tax purposes absent an election out of such limitation, if available. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.
Under some circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed
 
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for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid. In addition, if a dividend we have paid is treated as a preferential dividend, in lieu of treating the dividend as not counting toward satisfying the 90% distribution requirement, the IRS may provide a remedy to cure such failure if the IRS determines that such failure is (or is of a type that is) inadvertent or due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.
Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which U.S. federal corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.
For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.
Like-Kind Exchanges.   We may dispose of real property that is not held primarily for sale in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, or deficiency dividends, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.
Foreclosure Property.   The foreclosure property rules permit us (by our election) to foreclose or repossess properties without being disqualified as a REIT as a result of receiving income that does not qualify under the gross income tests. However, in such a case, we would be subject to the U.S. federal corporate income tax on the net non-qualifying income from “foreclosure property,” and the after-tax amount would increase the dividends we would be required to distribute to stockholders. See “— Annual Distribution Requirements.” This corporate tax would not apply to income that qualifies under the REIT 75% income test.
Foreclosure property treatment is generally available for an initial period of three years and may, in certain circumstances, be extended for an additional three years. However, foreclosure property treatment will end on the first day on which we enter into a lease of the applicable property that will give rise to income that does not qualify under the REIT 75% income test, but will not end if the lease will give rise only to qualifying income under such test. Foreclosure property treatment also will end if any construction takes place on the property (other than completion of a building or other improvement that was more than 10% complete before default became imminent).
Failure to Qualify.   If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, on our taxable income. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate stockholders may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026 for
 
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purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain holding period requirements and other limitations. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.
Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies
General.   All of our investments are held indirectly through our operating partnership. In addition, our operating partnership holds certain of its investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies that we believe are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners of such partnerships are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership. We will include in our income our share of these partnership items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our operating partnership, including its share of the assets of its subsidiary partnerships, based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “— Taxation of Our Company — Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries.” A disregarded entity is not treated as a separate entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a disregarded entity are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of its parent that is not a disregarded entity (e.g., our operating partnership) for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests.
Entity Classification.   Our interests in our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For example, an entity that would otherwise be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations. We do not anticipate that our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership will be treated as a publicly traded partnership that is taxable as a corporation. However, if any such entity were treated as a corporation, it would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “— Taxation of Our Company — Asset Tests” and “— Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “— Taxation of Our Company — Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our operating partnership or a subsidiary treated as a partnership or disregarded entity to a corporation might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment. We believe our operating partnership and each of the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Allocations of Items of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction.   A partnership agreement (or, in the case of a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the limited liability company agreement) generally will determine the allocation of income and loss among partners. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation
 
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will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. The allocations of taxable income and loss of our operating partnership and any subsidiaries that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder.
Tax Allocations With Respect to the Properties.   Under Section 704(c) of the Code, items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.
We are currently treated as the sole owner of our operating partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and as a result our operating partnership is disregarded as an entity separate from our company for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If our operating partnership issues operating partnership units at some point in the future, we will be treated as contributing our assets to our operating partnership in exchange for operating partnership units for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and therefore we will be subject to the allocation provisions described above to the extent of any book-tax difference in its assets at the time of the contribution. In addition, our operating partnership may, from time to time, acquire interests in property in exchange for interests in our operating partnership. In that case, the tax basis of these property interests generally will carry over to our operating partnership, notwithstanding their different book (i.e., fair market) value. The partnership agreement requires that income and loss allocations with respect to these properties be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Treasury Regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Depending on the method we choose in connection with any particular contribution, the carryover basis of each of the contributed interests in the properties in the hands of our operating partnership (1) could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if any of the contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to its respective fair market value at the time of the contribution and (2) could cause us to be allocated taxable gain in the event of a sale of such contributed interests or properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the other partners in our operating partnership. An allocation described in clause (2) above might cause us or the other partners to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “— Taxation of Our Company — Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “— Annual Distribution Requirements.”
Any property acquired by our operating partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code generally will not apply.
Partnership Audit Rules.   Under current tax law, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. It is possible that these rules could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest, including our operating partnership, being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these rules and their potential impact on their investment in our capital stock.
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Capital Stock and Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities
The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities. This
 
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discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities as “capital assets” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances, including the alternative minimum tax. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

persons holding our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

REITs or regulated investment companies;

brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities being taken into account in an applicable financial statement;

persons deemed to sell our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

persons who hold or receive our capital stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.
THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK OR OUR OPERATING PARTNERSHIP’S DEBT SECURITIES ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.
For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” ​(within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities that is neither a U.S. holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
 
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If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.
Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock
Distributions Generally.   Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “— Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are corporations or, except to the extent described in “— Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.
To the extent that we make distributions on our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. holder to the extent of the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. This treatment will reduce the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by such amount, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.
U.S. holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our capital stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our capital stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of the capital stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. holder sells the capital stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. holder that receives capital stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such capital stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such capital stock as described above, and has a holding period in such capital stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.
Capital Gain Dividends.   Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as
 
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determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in our stockholders’ long-term capital gains, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.
Retention of Net Capital Gains.   We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. holder generally would:

include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its U.S. federal income tax return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

increase the adjusted tax basis of its capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.
Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations.   Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange of our capital stock by a U.S. holder will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as described in “— Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.
Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.   Except as described below under “— Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” If a U.S. holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be long-term capital gain or loss if the holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.
Redemption or Repurchase by Us.   A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “— Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder,

results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. holder’s stock interest in us, or

is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder,
 
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all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.
In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.
If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “— Distributions Generally.” A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.
If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “— Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”
Tax Rates.   The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” generally is 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” generally is 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its taxable REIT subsidiaries) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally may deduct up to 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026 for purposes of determining their U.S. federal income tax (but not for purposes of the 3.8% Medicare tax), subject to certain holding period requirements and other limitations.
Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock
Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of shares of our capital stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.
For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations or supplemental unemployment benefit trusts exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9) or (c)(17) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.
Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts.” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in
 
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our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our capital stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock
The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by non-U.S. holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.
Distributions Generally.   Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, or USRPIs, nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a non-U.S. holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.
Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:
(1)
a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or
(2)
the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.
Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such capital stock, they generally will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions may be treated as dividend income for certain non-U.S. holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.
Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests.   Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:
(1)
the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable
 
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income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or
(2)
the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.
Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders generally would be taxed at the regular rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% of any distribution to non-U.S. holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements, or qualified shareholders, are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
Retention of Net Capital Gains.   Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.
Sale of Our Capital Stock.   Except as described below under “— Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” Gain realized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation,” or USRPHC, will constitute a USRPI. We believe that we are a USRPHC. Our capital stock will not, however, constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we are a “domestically
 
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controlled qualified investment entity.” Because our capital stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”
Even if we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a non-U.S. holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of such capital stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:
(1)
such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market such as the New York Stock Exchange, and
(2)
such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period.
In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. holder if either (a) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such class of stock is “regularly traded” and the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).
If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.
Redemption or Repurchase by Us.   A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current
 
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and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “— Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “— Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock — Distributions Generally” above. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described above under “— Sale of Our Capital Stock.”
Taxation of Holders of Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities
The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of debt securities issued by our operating partnership. This discussion assumes the debt securities will be issued with less than a statutory de minimis amount of original issue discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, this discussion is limited to persons purchasing the debt securities for cash at original issue and at their original “issue price” within the meaning of Section 1273 of the Code (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the debt securities is sold to the public for cash).
U.S. Holders
Payments of Interest.   Interest on a debt security generally will be taxable to a U.S. holder as ordinary income at the time such interest is received or accrued, in accordance with such U.S. holder’s method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition.   A U.S. holder will recognize gain or loss on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security. The amount of such gain or loss generally will be equal to the difference between the amount received for the debt security in cash or other property valued at fair market value (less amounts attributable to any accrued but unpaid interest, which will be taxable as interest to the extent not previously included in income) and the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the debt security. A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in a debt security generally will be equal to the amount the U.S. holder paid for the debt security. Any gain or loss generally will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder has held the debt security for more than one year at the time of such sale or other taxable disposition. Otherwise, such gain or loss will be short-term capital gain or loss. Long-term capital gains recognized by certain non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally will be taxable at reduced rates. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.
Non-U.S. Holders
Payments of Interest.   Interest paid on a debt security to a non-U.S. holder that is not effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding, provided that:

the non-U.S. holder does not, actually or constructively, own 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our stock entitled to vote, or, if the Operating Partnership is no longer treated as a disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes, 10% or more of our operating partnership’s capital or profits;

the non-U.S. holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to our operating partnership through actual or constructive stock ownership; and

one of the following apply: (1) the non-U.S. holder certifies in a statement provided to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it is not a United States person and provides its name and address; (2) a securities clearing organization, bank or other financial institution that holds customers’ securities in the ordinary course of its trade or business and holds the debt security on behalf of the non-U.S. holder certifies to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury that it, or the financial institution between it and the non-U.S. holder, has received from the non-U.S. holder a statement under penalties of perjury that such holder is not a United States person and
 
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provides the applicable withholding agent with a copy of such statement; or (3) the non-U.S. holder holds its debt security directly through a “qualified intermediary” ​(within the meaning of the applicable Treasury Regulations) and certain conditions are satisfied.
If a non-U.S. holder does not satisfy the requirements above, such non-U.S. holder will be subject to withholding tax of 30%, subject to a reduction in or an exemption from withholding on such interest as a result of an applicable tax treaty. To claim such entitlement, the non-U.S. holder must provide the applicable withholding agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) claiming a reduction in or exemption from withholding tax under the benefit of an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.
If interest paid to a non-U.S. holder is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such interest is attributable), the non-U.S. holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the non-U.S. holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that interest paid on a debt security is not subject to withholding tax because it is effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States.
Any such effectively connected interest generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected interest, as adjusted for certain items.
The certifications described above must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of interest and must be updated periodically. Non-U.S. holders that do not timely provide the applicable withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced rate under an applicable income tax treaty, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.
Sale or Other Taxable Disposition.   A non-U.S. holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a debt security (such amount excludes any amount allocable to accrued and unpaid interest, which generally will be treated as interest and may be subject to the rules discussed above in “— Taxation of Holders of Our Operating Partnership’s Debt Securities — Non-U.S. Holders — Payments of Interest”) unless:

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable); or

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met.
Gain described in the first bullet point above generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.
A non-U.S. holder described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on gain realized upon the sale or other taxable disposition of a debt security, which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.
Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.
 
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Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
U.S. Holders.   A U.S. holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock or debt securities (including a redemption or retirement of a debt security). Certain U.S. holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.
Non-U.S. Holders.   Payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any distributions on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities paid to the non-U.S. holder, regardless of whether such distributions constitute a dividend or whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock or debt securities (including a retirement or redemption of a debt security) within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of such stock or debt securities conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.
Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income
Certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock, interest on debt obligations and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt obligations, subject to certain limitations. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.
 
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Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts
Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA,) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock, interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities, or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” ​(each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” ​(as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” ​(each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.
Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock or interest on our operating partnership’s debt securities. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock or debt securities on or after January 1, 2019, proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.
Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.
Other Tax Consequences
State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock or our operating partnership’s debt securities.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the offered securities from time to time:

through underwriters or dealers;

through agents;

directly to one or more purchasers; or

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.
We will identify the specific plan of distribution and terms, including any underwriters, dealers, agents or direct purchasers, the amount underwritten and their compensation in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, Los Angeles, California. Certain legal matters with respect to the validity of shares of our capital stock and certain other legal matters relating to Maryland law will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
The financial statements and the related financial statement schedule incorporated in this prospectus by reference from Safehold Inc.'s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, and the effectiveness of Safehold Inc.'s internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements and financial statement schedule have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14.   Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following is an estimate of the expenses (all of which are to be paid by the registrant) that we may incur in connection with the securities being registered hereby.
SEC registration fee
$   (1)
FINRA filing fee
$ (2)
The New York Stock Exchange supplemental listing fee
$ (2)
Printing expenses
$ (2)
Legal fees and expenses
$ (2)
Accounting fees and expenses
$ (2)
Blue Sky qualification fees and expenses
$ (2)
Transfer agent fees and expenses
$ (2)
Trustee fees and expenses
$ (2)
Miscellaneous
$ (2)
Total
$ (2)
(1)
Pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the SEC registration fee will be paid at the time of any particular offering of securities under the registration statement, and is therefore not currently determinable.
(2)
These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.
Item 15.   Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that was established by a final judgment and was material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision and eliminates the liability of our directors and executive officers to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer in a suit by or in the right of the corporation, in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to the corporation or in any proceeding charging improper personal benefit in which the director or officer was adjudged
 
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liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by the corporation or in its right, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.
In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.
Our charter and bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

any present or former director or executive officer who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity;

any individual who, while a director or executive officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

any individual who served any predecessor of our company in a similar capacity, who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in such capacity.
Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers providing for the indemnification by us for certain liabilities and expenses incurred as a result of actions brought, or threatened to be brought, against (i) our directors and executive officers and (ii) our executive officers who are former members, managers, stockholders, directors, limited partners, general partners, officers or controlling persons of our predecessor in their capacities as such.
In addition, any director, officer or controlling person, as applicable, of Safehold Operating Partnership LP, Safehold OP GenPar LLC or a subsidiary thereof, and any other persons as Safehold OP GenPar LLC may designate are indemnified for specified liabilities and expenses pursuant to the partnership agreement of Safehold Operating Partnership LP, the partnership of which we serve as sole member to its sole general partner.
Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
 
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Item 16.   Exhibits
Exhibit
Number
Description
 1.1 Form of Underwriting Agreement(1)
 3.1
 3.2
 3.3
 3.4 First Amended and Restated Limited Partnership Agreement of Safety Income and Growth Operating Partnership LP, dated as of June 27, 2017, among Safety, Income and Growth, Inc. and SIGOP Gen Par LLC(5)
 3.5*
 4.1
 4.2* Form of Indenture, among Safehold Operating Partnership LP, as issuer, Safehold Inc., as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee
 4.3* Form of Indenture, between Safehold Inc., as issuer, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee
 4.4 Form of Deposit Agreement(1)
 4.5 Form of Depositary Receipt(1)
 4.6 Form of Warrant(1)
 4.7 Form of Warrant Agreement(1)
 4.8 Form of Rights Agreement(1)
 4.9 Form of Unit Agreement(1)
 5.1*
 5.2*
 8.1*
22.1*
23.1*
23.2*
23.3*
23.4*
24.1*
25.1* Statement of Eligibility under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 of U.S. Bank National Association (Form T-1)
25.2*
*
Filed herewith.
(1)
To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of a particular class or series of securities.
(2)
Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 3, 2017.
(3)
Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3(i) to our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 26, 2019.
(4)
Incorporated herein incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 3, 2017.
 
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(5)
Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 3, 2017.
(6)
Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to our Registration Statement on Form S-11 (File No. 333-217224), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 16, 2017.
Item 17.   Undertakings
(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement; and
(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii), and (a)(1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is a part of the registration statement.
(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify
 
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any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(6) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:
The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv) Any other communications that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(h) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
 
II-5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that the registrant meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, State of New York, on this 18th day of February, 2021.
SAFEHOLD INC.
By:
/s/ Douglas B. Heitner
Name: Douglas B. Heitner
Title: Chief Legal Officer
SAFEHOLD OPERATING PARTNERSHIP LP
By:
Safehold OP GenPar LLC, its general partner
By:
Safehold Inc., the sole member of its general partner
By:
/s/ Douglas B. Heitner 
Name: Douglas B. Heitner
Title: Chief Legal Officer
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below does hereby constitute and appoint Jay Sugarman, Marcos Alvarado, Jeremy Fox-Geen and Doug Heitner, and each of them, with full power of substitution and full power to act without the other, such person’s true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent to act for such person in such person’s name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement and any related registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, and to file this registration statement, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing necessary or desirable to be done in order to effectuate the same as fully, to all intents and purposes, as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Signature
Title
Date
/s/ Jay Sugarman
Jay Sugarman
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
February 18, 2021
/s/ Jeremy Fox-Geen
Jeremy Fox-Geen
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
February 18, 2021
/s/ Garett Rosenblum
Garett Rosenblum
Chief Accounting Officer
February 18, 2021
/s/ Dean S. Adler
Dean S. Adler
Director
February 18, 2021
/s/ Robin Josephs
Robin Josephs
Director
February 18, 2021
/s/ Jay S. Nydick
Jay S. Nydick
Director
February 18, 2021
/s/ Stefan M. Selig
Stefan M. Selig
Director
February 18, 2021
 

 

Exhibit 3.5

 

CERTIFICATE OF LIMITED PARTNERSHIP

 

OF

 

SAFETY INCOME AND GROWTH OPERATING PARTNERSHIP LP

 

This Certificate of Limited Partnership of Safety Income and Growth Operating Partnership LP (the "Partnership") is being duly executed and filed by the entity named below as the General Partner of the Partnership under the Delaware Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (6 Del.C. § 17-101, et seq.). The General Partner hereby certifies as follows:

 

FIRST: The name of the limited partnership formed hereby is Safety Income and Growth Operating Partnership LP.

 

SECOND: The address of the Partnership's registered office in the State of Delaware is c/o National Registered Agents, Inc., 160 Greentree Drive, Suite 101, County of Kent, City of Duver, State of Delaware 19904. The name and address of the registered agent in Delaware for service of process are National Registered Agents, Inc., 160 Greentree Drive, Suite 101, Delaware 19904.

 

THIRD: The name and business address of the general partner of the Partnership are: SIGOP Gen Par LLC, 1114 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10036:

 

FOURTH: This Certificate of Limited Partnership shall be effective on the date of filing.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned has executed this Certificate of Limited Partnership as of this 14th day of October, 2016

 

  SIGOP GEN PAR  LLC
   
   
  By: /s/ Kathleen L. Werner
    Name: Kathleen L. Werner
    Title: Authorized Person  

 

 

 

 

STATE OF DELAWARE

CERTIFICATE OF AMENDMENT CHANGING ONLY THE

REGISTERED OFFICE OR REGISTERED AGENT OF A

LIMITED PARTNERSHIP

 

The limited partnership organized and existing under the Limited Partnership Act of the State of Delaware, hereby certifies as follows:

 

1.            The name of the limited partnership is                                                                                                         

SAFETY INCOME AND GROWTH OPERATING PARTNERSHIP LP

 

 

2. The Registered Office of the limited partnership in the State of Delaware is  
changed to   2711  Centerville  Road,   Suite  400
                                                                    (street), in the City of wilmington                                                                                                                             
Zip Code 19 8 0 8 .  The name of the Registered Agent at such address upon

whom process against this limited partnership may be served is                                                                                   

Corporation Service Company

 

  By: SIGOP Gen Par LLC
    General Partner

 

  Name: /s/ Geoffrey M. Dugan, Authorized Person
  Print or Type

 

 

 

 

STATE OF DELAWARE AMENDMENT TO

THE CERTIFICATE OF LIMITED PARTNERSHIP

 

The undersigned, desiring to amend the Certificate of Limited Partnership pursuant to the provisions of Section 17-202 of the Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act of the State of Delaware, does hereby certify as follows:

 

FIRST: The name of the partnership is Safety Income and Growth Operating Partnership LP.

 

SECOND: Article First of the Certificate of Limited Partnership shall be amended as follows:

 

First: The name of the limited partnership formed hereby is Safehold Operating Partnership LP.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned has executed this Certificate of Amendment of Partnership this 22nd day of February, 2019, A.D.

 

  SIGOP Gen Par LLC,
  a Delaware limited liability company,
  General Partner
   
  /s/ Geoffrey M. Dugan
  Geoffrey M. Dugan,
  General Counsel, Corporate and Secretary

 

 

 

Exhibit 4.2

 

 

SAFEHOLD OPERATING PARTNERSHIP LP

 

 

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of _______________, 20__

 

 

 

U.S. BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION

 

Trustee 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS  
  Page
   
ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE 7
Section 1.1 Definitions. 7
Section 1.2 Other Definitions. 10
Section 1.3 Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act. 10
Section 1.4 Rules of Construction. 10
     
ARTICLE II. THE SECURITIES 11
Section 2.1 Issuable in Series. 11
Section 2.2 Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities. 11
Section 2.3 Execution and Authentication. 13
Section 2.4 Registrar and Paying Agent. 14
Section 2.5 Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust. 14
Section 2.6 Securityholder Lists. 15
Section 2.7 Transfer and Exchange. 15
Section 2.8 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. 15
Section 2.9 Outstanding Securities. 16
Section 2.10 Treasury Securities. 16
Section 2.11 Temporary Securities. 16
Section 2.12 Cancellation. 17
Section 2.13 Defaulted Interest. 17
Section 2.14 Global Securities. 17
Section 2.15 CUSIP Numbers. 18
     
ARTICLE III. REDEMPTION 18
Section 3.1 Notice to Trustee. 18
Section 3.2 Selection of Securities to be Redeemed. 18
Section 3.3 Notice of Redemption. 19
Section 3.4 Effect of Notice of Redemption. 19
Section 3.5 Deposit of Redemption Price. 20
Section 3.6 Securities Redeemed in Part. 20
     
ARTICLE IV. COVENANTS 20
Section 4.1 Payment of Principal and Interest. 20
Section 4.2 SEC Reports. 20
Section 4.3 Compliance Certificate. 20
Section 4.4 Stay, Extension and Usury Laws. 21
     
ARTICLE V. SUCCESSORS 21
Section 5.1 When Company May Merge, Etc. 21
Section 5.2 Successor Corporation Substituted. 21
Section 5.3 General Partner May Consolidate on Certain Terms 22
Section 5.4 General Partner Successor to Be Substituted 22

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE VI. DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES 22
Section 6.1 Events of Default. 22
Section 6.2 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment. 23
Section 6.3 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee. 24
Section 6.4 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim. 24
Section 6.5 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities. 25
Section 6.6 Application of Money Collected. 25
Section 6.7 Limitation on Suits. 25
Section 6.8 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest. 26
Section 6.9 Restoration of Rights and Remedies. 26
Section 6.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative. 26
Section 6.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver. 26
Section 6.12 Control by Holders. 26
Section 6.13 Waiver of Past Defaults. 27
Section 6.14 Undertaking for Costs. 27
     
ARTICLE VII. TRUSTEE 27
Section 7.1 Duties of Trustee. 28
Section 7.2 Rights of Trustee. 28
Section 7.3 Individual Rights of Trustee. 29
Section 7.4 Trustee’s Disclaimer. 30
Section 7.5 Notice of Defaults. 30
Section 7.6 Reports by Trustee to Holders. 30
Section 7.7 Compensation and Indemnity. 30
Section 7.8 Replacement of Trustee. 31
Section 7.9 Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc. 31
Section 7.10 Eligibility; Disqualification. 31
Section 7.11 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company. 32
     
ARTICLE VIII. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE 32
Section 8.1 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. 32
Section 8.2 Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification. 33
Section 8.3 Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series. 33
Section 8.4 Covenant Defeasance. 34
Section 8.5 Repayment to Company. 35
Section 8.6 Reinstatement. 35
     
ARTICLE IX. AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS 35
Section 9.1 Without Consent of Holders. 36
Section 9.2 With Consent of Holders. 36
Section 9.3 Limitations. 37
Section 9.4 Compliance with Trust Indenture Act. 37
Section 9.5 Revocation and Effect of Consents. 37
Section 9.6 Notation on or Exchange of Securities. 38
Section 9.7 Trustee Protected. 38

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE X. MISCELLANEOUS 38
Section 10.1 Trust Indenture Act Controls. 38
Section 10.2 Notices. 38
Section 10.3 Communication by Holders with Other Holders. 39
Section 10.4 Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent. 39
Section 10.5 Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion. 39
Section 10.6 Rules by Trustee and Agents. 40
Section 10.7 Legal Holidays. 40
Section 10.8 No Recourse Against Others. 40
Section 10.9 Counterparts. 40
Section 10.10 Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction. 41
Section 10.11 No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements. 41
Section 10.12 Successors. 41
Section 10.13 Severability. 41
Section 10.14 Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. 41
Section 10.15 Securities in a Foreign Currency. 41
Section 10.16 Judgment Currency. 42
Section 10.17 USA Patriot Act. 42
Section 10.18 Force Majeure. 42
     
ARTICLE XI. SINKING FUNDS 43
Section 11.1 Applicability of Article. 43
Section 11.2 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities. 43
Section 11.3 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund. 43
     
ARTICLE XII. GUARANTEE 44
Section 12.1 Unconditional Guarantee. 44
Section 12.2 Execution and Delivery of Notation of Guarantee. 44
Section 12.3 Limitation on Guarantors’ Liability. 45
Section 12.4 Release of Guarantors from Guarantee. 45

 

EXHIBITS

 

Exhibit A         Form of Notation of Guarantee

 

 

 

 

Safehold Operating Partnership LP

 

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and
Indenture, dated as of _______________, 20__

 

§ 310(a)(1)     7.10
(a)(2)     7.10
(a)(3)     Not Applicable
(a)(4)     Not Applicable
(a)(5)     7.10
(b)     7.10
§ 311(a)     7.11
(b)     7.11
(c)     Not Applicable
§ 312(a)     2.6
(b)     10.3
(c)     10.3
§ 313(a)     7.6
(b)(1)     7.6
(b)(2)     7.6
(c)(1)     7.6
(c)(2)     7.6
(c)(3)     7.6
(d)     7.6
§ 314(a)     4.2, 10.5
(b)     Not Applicable
(c)(1)     10.4
(c)(2)     10.4
(c)(3)     Not Applicable
(d)     Not Applicable
(e)     10.5
(f)     Not Applicable
§ 315(a)     7.1
(b)     7.5
(c)     7.1
(d)     7.1
(e)     6.14
§ 316(a)     2.10
(a)(1)(A)     6.12
(a)(1)(B)     6.13
(b)     6.8
(c)     9.5
§ 317(a)(1)     6.3
(a)(2)     6.4
(b)     2.5
§ 318(a)     10.1

 

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

 

 

 

Indenture, dated as of _______________, 20__, among Safehold Operating Partnership LP, a Delaware limited partnership (the “Company”), the Guarantors (as defined herein) party hereto and U.S. Bank National Association, a national banking association, as trustee (the “Trustee”).

 

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

 

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE I.
DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

Section 1.1      Definitions.

 

“Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders.

 

“Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

 

“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent.

 

“Board of Directors” means the board of directors of Safehold Inc. or any duly authorized committee thereof.

 

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the General Partner to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

 

“Business Day” means, unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday, a day on which banking institutions in the state in which the Corporate Trust Office is located or a legal holiday in The City of New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment) on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

 

“Capital Stock” means (a) in the case of a corporation, corporate stock; (b) in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated and whether or not voting) of corporate stock, including each class of common stock and preferred stock of such person; and (c) in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership or membership interests (whether general or limited).

 

“Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

 

“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by the General Partner by an Officer.

 

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered, which office at the date of the Indenture is located at the address set forth in Section 10.2, or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company.

 

 

 

 

“CUSIP” means the Committee on Uniform Security Identification Procedures and will be used pursuant to Section 2.15.

 

“Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

“Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

“Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

“Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America, including the Euro.

 

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

“GAAP” means accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

 

“General Partner” means Safehold OP GenPar LLC, in its capacity as general partner of the Company, and, subject to the provision in Article V, its successor and assigns.

 

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

“Guarantor” means each person that executes this Indenture as a guarantor and its respective successors and assigns, in each case until the Guarantee of such person has been released in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture; provided, however, that such person shall be a Guarantor only with respect to a Series of Securities for which such person has executed a Notation of Guarantee with respect to such Series.

 

“Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

 

“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented, from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

“interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

 

 

 

 

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

“Notation of Guarantee” means a notation, substantially in the form of Exhibit A, executed by a Guarantor and affixed to each Security of any Series to which the Guarantee of such Guarantor under Article XII of this Indenture applies.

 

“Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and any Vice President of the Company.

 

“Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer, which complies with Section 10.4.

 

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. The opinion may contain customary limitations, conditions and exceptions.

 

“person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof. “principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

 

“Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter relating to this Indenture is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

 

“SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

“Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, provided, however that, if at any time there is more than one person acting as Trustee under this Indenture, “Securities,” with respect to any such person, shall mean Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, exclusive, however, of Securities of any Series as to which such person is not Trustee .

 

“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

 

“Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or interest is due and payable.

 

“Subsidiary” of any specified person means any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that person or a combination thereof.

 

“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Sections 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

 

“Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

 

 

 

“U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depositary receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

Section 1.2      Other Definitions.

 

TERM  DEFINED
IN
SECTION
 
“Bankruptcy Law”     6.1 
“Custodian”     6.1 
“Guarantee”   12.1(b) 
“Event of Default”     6.1 
“Judgment Currency”   10.16 
“Legal Holiday”   10.7 
“mandatory sinking fund payment”   11.1 
“New York Banking Day”   10.16 
“Notice Agent”     2.4 
“optional sinking fund payment”   11.1 
“Paying Agent”     2.4 
“Registrar”     2.4 
“Required Currency”   10.16 
“successor person”     5.1 
“USA Patriot Act”   10.17 

 

Section 1.3      Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

“Commission” means the SEC.

 

“indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

“indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

 

“indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

“indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

“obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

 

 

 

 

Section 1.4      Rules of Construction.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(a) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

 

(b) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

 

(c) “or” is not exclusive;

 

(d) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

 

(e) provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

 

ARTICLE II.
THE SECURITIES

 

Section 2.1      Issuable in Series.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officer’s Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 

Section 2.2      Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

 

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.30) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

 

2.2.1 the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) and ranking (including the terms of any subordination provisions) of the Series;

 

2.2.2 the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

2.2.3 any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6) and whether additional Securities of that Series may be issued without the consent of Holders of outstanding Securities of that Series or any other Series; provided, that in the event that additional Securities of such Series may be so issued, the terms thereof shall indicate whether any such additional Securities shall have the same terms as the prior Securities of such Series or whether the Issuer may establish additional or different terms with respect to such additional Securities;

 

2.2.4 the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

 

 

 

2.2.5 the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable, any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

2.2.6 the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

2.2.7 if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

2.2.8 the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

2.2.9 the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

2.2.10 if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

2.2.11 the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

 

2.2.12 if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

2.2.13 the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

2.2.14 the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

 

2.2.15 if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

2.2.16 the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

2.2.17 the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series or the Guarantees;

 

2.2.18 any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

 

 

 

2.2.19 any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants and terms set forth in Articles IV, V or IX which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

2.2.20 any Depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

 

2.2.21 the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

 

2.2.22 any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series;

 

2.2.23 whether the Securities of such Series are entitled to the benefits of the Guarantee of any Guarantor pursuant to this Indenture, whether any such Guarantee shall be made on a senior or subordinated basis and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms of any such Guarantee;

 

2.2.24 if a person other than U.S. Bank National Association is to act as Trustee for the Securities of that Series, the name and location of the designated corporate trust office of such Trustee;

 

2.2.25 the securities exchanges, if any, on which the Securities of the Series may be listed;

 

2.2.26 if the Securities of that Series do not bear interest, the applicable dates for purposes of Section 2.6;

 

2.2.27 if Securities of the Series are to be issuable initially in the form of a temporary Global Security, the circumstances under which the temporary Global Security can be exchanged for definitive Securities;

 

2.2.28 whether Securities of that Series are to be issuable in bearer form and any additions or changes to any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in bearer form, registrable or not registrable as to principal, and with or without interest coupons;

 

2.2.29 the applicability, if any, of Sections 8.3 and/or 8.4 to the Securities of the Series and any provisions in modification of, in addition to or in lieu of any of the provisions of Article VIII; and

 

2.2.30 any change in the right of the Trustee or the right of the requisite Holders of Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable.

 

All Securities of any particular Series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and the date from which interest, if any, shall accrue, and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to such Board Resolutions and set forth in such Officer’s Certificate relating thereto or provided in or pursuant to any supplemental indenture hereto. All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

 

Section 2.3      Execution and Authentication.

 

Any Officer shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual, facsimile or other electronic (including .pdf) signature (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com).

 

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

 

 

 

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of an authorized signatory of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

 

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.2) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

 

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

 

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

Section 2.4      Registrar and Paying Agent.

 

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.2, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”) and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered (“Notice Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands; provided, that the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee shall not be a place of service of legal process on the Company.

 

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars, additional paying agents or additional notice agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar, additional paying agent or additional notice agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent; and the term “Notice Agent” includes any additional notice agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

 

 

 

Section 2.5      Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.

 

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

 

Section 2.6      Securityholder Lists.

 

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA Section 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

Section 2.7      Transfer and Exchange.

 

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6).

 

Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business 15 days immediately preceding the sending of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day such notice is sent, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

 

Section 2.8      Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (a) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (b) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon receipt of a Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

 

 

 

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security following delivery of the documents and security or indemnity required in the preceding paragraph .

 

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

 

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

Section 2.9      Outstanding Securities.

 

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding, including those paid in accordance with the third-to-last paragraph of Section 2.8.

 

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

 

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date as provided in this Indenture, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

 

The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security (but see Section 2.10 below).

 

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

 

Section 2.10      Treasury Securities.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

 

Section 2.11      Temporary Securities.

 

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

 

 

 

Any temporary Global Security and any permanent Global Security shall, unless otherwise provided therein, be delivered to the Depositary designated pursuant to Section 2.2 or shall be held by the Custodian on behalf of such Depositary.

 

Section 2.12      Cancellation.

 

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation and shall dispose of such canceled Securities in accordance with its then customary procedures (subject to the record retention requirement of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.13      Defaulted Interest.

 

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least ten days before the special record date, the Company shall send to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

 

Section 2.14      Global Securities.

 

2.14.1 Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

 

2.14.2 Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.7 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (a) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event or (b) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

Except as provided in this Section 2.14.2, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

 

2.14.3 Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

 

 

 

“THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY. THIS SECURITY IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR SECURITIES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE, AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

 

In addition, so long as The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) is the Depositary, each Global Note registered in the name of DTC or its nominee shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“UNLESS THIS GLOBAL NOTE IS PRESENTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY, A NEW YORK CORPORATION (“DTC”), TO THE COMPANY OR ITS AGENT FOR REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER, EXCHANGE OR PAYMENT, AND ANY GLOBAL NOTE ISSUED IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF CEDE & CO. OR IN SUCH OTHER NAME AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC (AND ANY PAYMENT IS MADE TO CEDE & CO. OR TO SUCH OTHER ENTITY AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL INASMUCH AS THE REGISTERED OWNER HEREOF, CEDE & CO., HAS AN INTEREST HEREIN.”

 

2.14.4 Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

 

2.14.5 Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

 

2.14.6 Consents, Declaration and Directions. The Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall be entitled to conclusively treat a person as the absolute owner of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary or by the applicable procedures of the Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Section 2.15      CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing of any change in CUSIP numbers.

 

ARTICLE III.
REDEMPTION

 

Section 3.1      Notice to Trustee.

 

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of the Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice at least 15 days before the redemption date (or such shorter period as may be acceptable to the Trustee).

 

 

 

 

Section 3.2Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in any manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, including by lot or other method, unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange requirements (as certified by the Company to the Trustee), subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary. The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. The Trustee may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of the Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 thereof or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2.10, the minimum principal denomination for each Series and the authorized integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

 

Section 3.3Notice of Redemption.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, at least 15 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall send or cause to be sent by first class mail or electronically, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary, a notice of redemption to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed, with a copy to the Trustee.

 

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

 

(a) the redemption date;

 

(b) the redemption price;

 

(c) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

 

(d) if any Securities are being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date and upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the original Security shall be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original Security;

 

(e) that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

(f) that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date;

 

(g) the CUSIP number, if any; and

 

(h) any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

 

At the Company’s written request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee, at least five days (unless a shorter time shall be acceptable to the Trustee) prior to the notice date, an Officer’s Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice in the form of such notice.

 

Section 3.4Effect of Notice of Redemption.

 

Once notice of redemption is sent as provided in Section 3.3, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. Except as otherwise provided in the supplemental indenture, Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate for a Series, a notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest, if any, to the redemption date.

 

 

 

 

Section 3.5Deposit of Redemption Price.

 

On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

 

Section 3.6Securities Redeemed in Part.

 

Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same Maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

 

ARTICLE IV.
COVENANTS

 

Section 4.1Payment of Principal and Interest.

 

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it shall duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid when due the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the applicable payment date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of each Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

 

Section 4.2SEC Reports.

 

Safehold Inc. shall, so long as any Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after it files them with the SEC copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the SEC may by rules and regulations prescribe) which Safehold Inc. is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Safehold Inc. shall also comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a). Reports, information and documents filed with the SEC via the EDGAR system will be deemed to be delivered to the Trustee as of the time of such filing via EDGAR for purposes of this Section 4.2, provided, however, that the Trustee shall have no obligation whatsoever to determine whether or not such information, documents or reports have been filed via EDGAR.

 

Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under this Section 4.2 are for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive or actual notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).

 

Section 4.3Compliance Certificate.

 

The Company and each Guarantor (to the extent that such Guarantor is so required under the TIA) shall, so long as any Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officer’s Certificate stating that a review of the activities of the Guarantor, Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officer with a view to determining whether the Company and any Guarantor has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of such Officer’s knowledge the Company and any Guarantor has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which such Officer may have knowledge and the nature and status thereof).

 

 

 

 

The Company will, so long as any of the Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, promptly upon becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default, an Officer’s Certificate specifying such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

 

Section 4.4Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

 

The Company and the Guarantors covenant (to the extent that they may lawfully do so) that they will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities and the Company and the Guarantors (to the extent they may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waive all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that they will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

 

ARTICLE V.
SUCCESSORS

 

Section 5.1When Company May Merge, Etc.

 

The Company shall not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its properties and assets to, any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

(a) the Company is the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than the Company) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes the Company’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture; and

 

(b) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

 

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officer’s Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

 

Notwithstanding the above, any Subsidiary of the Company may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to the Company. Neither an Officer’s Certificate nor an Opinion of Counsel shall be required to be delivered in connection therewith.

 

Section 5.2Successor Corporation Substituted.

 

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor Company in the case of a sale, conveyance or other disposition (other than a lease) shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

 

 

 

Section 5.3Safehold Inc. May Consolidate on Certain Terms

 

Nothing contained in this Indenture or in the Securities shall prevent any consolidation or merger of Safehold Inc. with or into any other person or persons (whether or not affiliated with Safehold Inc.), or successive consolidations or mergers in which either Safehold Inc. will be the continuing entity or Safehold Inc. or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or lease of all or substantially all of the property of Safehold Inc., to any other person (whether or not affiliated with Safehold Inc.); provided, however, that the following conditions are met:

 

(a) Safehold Inc. shall be the continuing entity, or the successor entity (if other than Safehold Inc.) formed by or resulting from any consolidation or merger or which shall have received the transfer of assets shall expressly assume the obligations of Safehold Inc. under the Guarantee and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions in this Indenture; and

 

(b) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing.

 

Safehold Inc. shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officer’s Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

 

Notwithstanding the above, any Subsidiary of Safehold Inc. may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to Safehold Inc.. Neither an Officer’s Certificate nor an Opinion of Counsel shall be required to be delivered in connection therewith.

 

Section 5.4Safehold Inc. Successor to Be Substituted

 

Upon any consolidation or merger or any sale, conveyance, transfer or lease of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of Safehold Inc. to any person in accordance with Section 5.3, the successor person formed by such consolidation or into which Safehold Inc. is merged or to which such sale, conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, Safehold Inc. under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person had been named as Safehold Inc. herein, and thereafter, the predecessor person shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture; provided, however, that the predecessor Safehold Inc. shall not be relieved from the obligation, if any, to guarantee the payment of the principal of and interest on the Securities except in the case of a sale of all or substantially all of Safehold Inc.’s assets in a transaction that is subject to, and that complies with the provisions of, Section 5.3 hereof.

 

ARTICLE VI.
DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

 

Section 6.1Events of Default.

 

“Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

 

(a) default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period); or

 

(b) default in the payment of principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or

 

(c) default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty of the Company in the Securities of that Series or this Indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of a Series of Securities other than that Series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

 

 

 

(d) the Company or any Guarantor pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

 

(i) commences a voluntary case,

 

(ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

 

(iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

 

(iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

 

(v) generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

 

(e) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

 

(i) is for relief against the Company or any Guarantor in an involuntary case,

 

(ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company, any Guarantor or for all or substantially all of its property, or

 

(iii) orders the liquidation of the Company or any Guarantor, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days; or

 

(f) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2.18.

 

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means title 11, U.S. Code or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

Section 6.2Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in Section 6.1(d) or (e)), then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the Securities of that Series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) shall occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding Securities shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.

 

At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to any Series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration, if all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, other than the non-payment of the principal and interest, if any, of Securities of that Series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 6.13.

 

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

 

 

 

Section 6.3Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

The Company covenants that if:

 

(a) default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days, or

 

(b) default is made in the payment of principal of any Security at the Maturity thereof, or

 

(c) default is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment when and as due by the terms of a Security,

 

then, the Company and the Guarantors shall, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and any overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

 

If the Company or the Guarantors fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree and may enforce the same against the Company, any Guarantor or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or deemed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company, any Guarantor or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

 

Section 6.4Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

 

In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

 

(a) to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal or, if the Securities of such Series are Discount Securities, such amounts as may be due and payable with respect to such Securities pursuant to an acceleration in accordance with Section 6.2, and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

 

(b) to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same,

 

and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that such payments shall be made directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

 

 

 

 

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.5Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

 

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

 

Section 6.6Application of Money Collected.

 

Any money or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money or property on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

First:      To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7; and

 

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

 

Third:    To the Company or the Guarantors, as applicable.

 

Section 6.7Limitation on Suits.

 

No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless

 

(a) such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

 

(b) the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

 

(c) such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, claims, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by the Trustee in compliance with such request;

 

(d) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

 

(e) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series;

 

 

 

 

it being understood, intended and expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders of the applicable Series (it being expressly understood that the Trustee shall not have an affirmative duty to ascertain whether such action is prejudicial).

 

Section 6.8Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

 

Section 6.9Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

 

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Guarantors, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

 

Section 6.10Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

 

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.8, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

Section 6.11Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

 

Section 6.12Control by Holders.

 

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that

 

(a) such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,

 

(b) the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction,

 

(c) the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability, the direction is in conflict with any law or this Indenture, or the direction would be unduly prejudicial to the Holders of such Series not joining therein provided, however, that the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee that is not inconsistent with such direction (it being expressly understood that the Trustee shall not have an affirmative duty to ascertain whether such action is prejudicial), and

 

 

 

 

(d) prior to taking any action as directed under this Section 6.12, the Trustee shall receive indemnity or security satisfactory to it against the costs, claims, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

Section 6.13Waiver of Past Defaults.

 

The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series, by written notice to the Trustee and the Company, waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.14Undertaking for Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

 

ARTICLE VII.
TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.1Duties of Trustee.

 

(a) If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

 

(i) The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others.

 

(ii) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform to the form requirements of this Indenture.

 

 

 

 

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section.

 

(ii) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

 

(iii) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series in accordance with Section 6.12.

 

(d) Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraph (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.

 

(e) The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, claims, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power.

 

(f) The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

(g) No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if adequate indemnity against such risk is not assured to the Trustee to its satisfaction.

 

(h) The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections and immunities as are set forth in paragraphs (e), (f) and (g)  of this Section, each with respect to the Trustee.

 

Section 7.2Rights of Trustee.

 

(a) The Trustee shall be entitled to conclusively rely on and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any document (whether in its original or facsimile form) reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

 

(b) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officer’s Certificate and Opinion of Counsel.

 

(c) The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care. No Depositary shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depositary.

 

(d) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers, provided that the Trustee’s conduct does not constitute willful misconduct or negligence.

 

 

 

 

(e) The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder without willful misconduct or negligence, and in reliance thereon.

 

(f) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities unless such Holders shall have offered, and, if requested, provided to the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, claims, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

(g) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit.

 

(h) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities generally or the Securities of a particular Series and this Indenture.

 

(i) Any permissive right or authority granted to the Trustee shall not be construed as a mandatory duty.

 

(j) The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture, which Officer’s Certificate may be signed by any person authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate, including any person specified as so authorized in any such certificate previously delivered and not superseded.

 

(k) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action arising in connection with the Indenture.

 

(l) The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the execution of the trusts and powers or otherwise in respect of the Indenture.

 

(m) Under no circumstances shall the Trustee be liable in its individual capacity for the obligations evidenced by the Securities.

 

Section 7.3Individual Rights of Trustee.

 

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

 

Section 7.4Trustee’s Disclaimer.

 

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities, it shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the Securities, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

 

Section 7.5Notice of Defaults.

 

If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series, in the manner set forth in Section 10.2, notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as the Trustee in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.

 

 

 

 

Section 7.6Reports by Trustee to Holders.

 

Within 60 days after May 15 of each year, the Trustee shall transmit to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such anniversary date, in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA Section 313.

 

A copy of each report at the time of its delivery to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each national securities exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing when Securities of any Series are listed on any national securities exchange and of any delisting thereof.

 

Section 7.7Compensation and Indemnity.

 

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

 

The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee (including the cost of defending itself) against any cost, claim, expense or liability, including taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee) incurred by it except as set forth in the next paragraph in the performance of its duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. Failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not relieve the Company of its obligations under this Section 7.7 except to the extent that the Company suffers actual and material prejudice as a result of such failure. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have separate counsel of its selection and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

 

The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through willful misconduct or negligence.

 

To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of and interest on particular Securities of that Series.

 

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

The provisions of this Section shall survive the termination of this Indenture or the earlier resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

Section 7.8Replacement of Trustee.

 

A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.

 

 

 

 

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company at least 30 days prior to the date of the proposed resignation. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:

 

(a) the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

 

(b) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

 

(c) a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

 

(d) the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

 

If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.

 

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may, at the Company's sole cost and expense, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee. A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.7, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall deliver a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.8, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.7 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it for actions taken or omitted to be taken in accordance with its rights, powers and duties under this Indenture prior to such replacement.

 

Section 7.9Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.

 

If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation or banking association, the successor corporation or banking association without any further act shall be the successor Trustee, subject to Section  7.10.

 

Section 7.10Eligibility; Disqualification.

 

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b). In determining whether the Trustee has a conflicting interest as defined in Section 310(b) of the TIA with respect to the Securities of any Series, there shall be excluded Securities of any particular Series of Securities other than that Series.

 

Section 7.11Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.

 

The Trustee is subject to TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated.

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE VIII.
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

 

Section 8.1Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

 

This Indenture shall upon Company Order be discharged with respect to the Securities of any Series and cease to be of further effect as to all Securities of such Series (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.1), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute instruments reasonably requested by the Company acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when

 

(a) either

 

(i) all Securities of such Series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

 

(ii) all such Securities of such Series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation:

 

(1) have become due and payable by reason of sending a notice of redemption or otherwise, or

 

(2) will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

 

(3) have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company, or

 

(4) are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to Section 8.3, as applicable;

 

and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount of money or U.S. Government Obligations sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

 

(b) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

 

(c) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with.

 

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.7, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 8.2 and 8.5 shall survive.

 

If the Company exercises the satisfaction and discharge provisions in compliance with this Indenture with respect to Securities of a particular Series that are entitled to the benefit of the Guarantee of any Guarantor, the Guarantee will terminate with respect to that Series of Securities.

 

Section 8.2Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

 

(a) Subject to the provisions of Section 8.5, all money or U.S. Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.1, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 8.3 or 8.4 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 8.3 or 8.4, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.3 or 8.4.

 

 

 

 

(b) The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.3 or 8.4 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

 

(c) The Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Order any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it as provided in Sections 8.3 or 8.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.

 

Section 8.3Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.

 

Unless this Section 8.3 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.2, to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of any Series on the 91st day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect and any Guarantee will terminate with respect to that Series of Securities (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, upon receipt of a Company Order, execute instruments reasonably requested by the Company acknowledging the same), except as to:

 

(a) the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;

 

(b) the provisions of Sections 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 8.2, 8.3 and 8.5; and

 

(c) the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Company’s obligations in connection therewith;

 

provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

i. the Company shall have deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

 

 

 

 

ii. such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound (other than a Default or Event of Default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit (and any similar concurrent deposit related to other indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary) and the granting of liens to secure such borrowings);

 

iii. no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 91st day after such date;

 

iv. the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

 

v. the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

 

vi. the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

 

Section 8.4     Covenant Defeasance.

 

Unless this Section 8.4 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company may omit to comply with respect to the Securities of any Series with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 and 5.1 as well as any additional covenants specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series under Section 6.1) and the occurrence of any event specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2.18 and designated as an Event of Default shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

(a) With reference to this Section 8.4, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

(b) Such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound (other than a Default or Event of Default resulting from the borrowing of funds to be applied to such deposit (and any similar concurrent deposit related to other indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary) and the granting of liens to secure such borrowings);

 

 

 

(c) No Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;

 

(d) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and covenant defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and covenant defeasance had not occurred;

 

(e) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

 

(f) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the covenant defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

 

Section 8.5     Repayment to Company.

 

Subject to applicable abandoned property law, the Trustee and the Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal and interest that remains unclaimed for two years. After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person.

 

Section 8.6     Reinstatement.

 

If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money deposited with respect to Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 8.1 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series and under the Securities of such Series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.1 until such time as the Trustee or the Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.1; provided, however, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money or U.S. Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent after payment in full to the Holders.

 

ARTICLE IX.
AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

 

Section 9.1      Without Consent of Holders.

 

The Company, any Guarantors and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:

 

(a) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

(b) to comply with Article V;

 

(c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

(d) to surrender any of the Company’s rights or powers under this Indenture;

 

 

 

(e) to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of Securities of any Series;

 

(f) to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable Depositary;

 

(g) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

 

(h) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;

 

(i) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee;

 

(j) to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the TIA;

 

(k) to reflect the release of any Guarantor in accordance with Article XII; or

 

(l) to add Guarantors with respect to any or all of the Securities or to secure any or all of the Securities or the Guarantees.

 

Section 9.2     With Consent of Holders.

 

The Company, any Guarantors and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each Series affected by such supplemental indenture (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series. Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series by notice to the Trustee (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.2 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof. After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to the Holders of Securities affected thereby (with a copy to the Trustee), a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

Any failure by the Company to send such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

Section 9.3     Limitations.

 

Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

 

(a) reduce the principal amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

(b) reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any Security;

 

(c) reduce the principal or change the Stated Maturity of any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

 

(d) reduce the principal amount of Discount Securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

 

 

(e) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

(f) make the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security payable in any currency other than that stated in the Security;

 

(g) make any change in Section 6.8, 6.13 or 9.3 (this sentence);

 

(h) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, provided that such redemption is made at the Company’s option; or

 

(i) if the Securities of that Series are entitled to the benefit of the Guarantee, release any Guarantor of such Series other than as provided in this Indenture or modify the Guarantee in any manner adverse to the Holders.

 

Section 9.4     Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.

 

Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.

 

Section 9.5     Revocation and Effect of Consents.

 

Until an amendment is set forth in a supplemental indenture or a waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date of the supplemental indenture or the date the waiver becomes effective.

 

Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (h) of Section 9.3 or requires the consent of each Security Holder affected, as set forth in a supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate in respect to a particular Series of Securities. In that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security.

 

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to give their consent or take any other action described above or required or permitted to be taken pursuant to this Indenture. If a record date is fixed, then notwithstanding the immediately preceding paragraph, those persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to give such consent or to revoke any consent previously given or take any such action, whether or not such persons continue to be Holders after such record date. No such consent shall be valid or effective for more than 120 days after such record date.

 

Section 9.6     Notation on or Exchange of Securities.

 

The Company or the Trustee may place an appropriate notation about an amendment or waiver on any Security of any Series thereafter authenticated. The Company in exchange for Securities of that Series may issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon request new Securities of that Series that reflect the amendment or waiver.

 

 

 

Section 9.7     Trustee Protected.

 

In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall receive, and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel stating that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures upon delivery of such an Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that adversely affects its rights.

 

ARTICLE X.
MISCELLANEOUS

 

Section 10.1     Trust Indenture Act Controls.

 

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.

 

Section 10.2     Notices.

 

Any notice or communication by the Company, any Guarantor or the Trustee to the other, or by a Holder to the Company, any Guarantor or the Trustee, is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail:

 

if to the Company or any Guarantor:

 

Safehold Operating Partnership LP

1114 Avenue of the Americas, 39th Floor

New York, New York 10036

Attention: Chief Legal Officer

Telephone: 212.930.9400

 

with a copy to:

 

Latham & Watkins LLP

355 S. Grand Ave., Suite 100

Los Angeles, CA 90071

Attention:Julian Kleindorfer
 

Lewis Kneib

Telephone:

213.891.8371

 213.891.7339

 

if to the Trustee:

 

U.S. Bank National Association

100 Wall Street, 6th Floor
New York, NY 10005
Attention: Global Corporate Trust - Safehold Administrator
Telephone: 212.951.8500

 

The Company, any Guarantor or the Trustee by notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

 

Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be sent electronically or by first-class mail to his, her or its address shown on the register kept by the Registrar, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary. Failure to send a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.

 

 

 

If a notice or communication is sent or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it.

 

If the Company or any Guarantor mails a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee) pursuant to the customary procedures of such Depositary.

 

Section 10.3     Communication by Holders with Other Holders.

 

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).

 

Section 10.4     Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.

 

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

 

(a) an Officer’s Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all covenants and conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

 

(b) an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such covenants and conditions precedent have been complied with.

 

Section 10.5     Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.

 

Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA Section 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA Section 314(e) and shall include:

 

(a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

 

(b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

(c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, such person has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable such person to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

 

(d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Section 10.6     Rules by Trustee and Agents.

 

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series. Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

 

Section 10.7     Legal Holidays.

 

Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, a “Legal Holiday” is any day that is not a Business Day. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.

 

 

 

Section 10.8     No Recourse Against Others.

 

A director, officer, employee or stockholder (past or present), as such, of the Company or any Guarantor shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities, the Guarantee or this Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

 

Section 10.9     Counterparts.

 

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. The words “execution,” “signed,” “signature,” and words of like import in this Indenture shall include images of manually executed signatures transmitted by facsimile, email or other electronic format (including, without limitation, “pdf,” “tif” or “jpg”) and other electronic signatures (including without limitation, DocuSign and AdobeSign). The use of electronic signatures and electronic records (including, without limitation, any contract or other record created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or stored by electronic means) shall be of the same legal effect, validity and enforceability as a manually executed signature or use of a paper-based record-keeping system to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, including the Federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, the New York State Electronic Signatures and Records Act and any other applicable law, including, without limitation, any state law based on the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act or the Uniform Commercial Code. Without limitation to the foregoing, and anything in this Indenture to the contrary notwithstanding, (a) any Officer’s Certificate, Company Order, Opinion of Counsel, Security, Guarantee endorsed on any Security, opinion of counsel, instrument, agreement or other document delivered pursuant to this Indenture may be executed, attested and transmitted by any of the foregoing electronic means and formats, (b) all references in Section 2.3 or elsewhere in this Indenture to the execution, attestation or authentication of any Security, any Guarantee endorsed on any Security, or any certificate of authentication appearing on or attached to any Security by means of a manual or facsimile signature shall be deemed to include signatures that are made or transmitted by any of the foregoing electronic means or formats, and (c) any requirement in this Indenture that any signature be made under a corporate seal (or facsimile thereof) shall not be applicable to the Securities or any Guarantees endorsed on any Securities. The Company agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of using digital signatures, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions.

 

Section 10.10   Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction.

 

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES, INCLUDING ANY CLAIM OR CONTROVERSY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THE INDENTURE OR THE SECURITIES, SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK (WITHOUT REGARD TO THE CONFLICTS OF LAWS PROVISIONS THEREOF OTHER THAN SECTION 5-1401 OF THE GENERAL OBLIGATIONS LAW).

 

THE COMPANY, THE GUARANTORS, THE TRUSTEE AND THE HOLDERS (BY THEIR ACCEPTANCE OF THE SECURITIES) EACH HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVE, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE NOTES OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY OR THEREBY.

 

 

 

Any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Indenture or the transactions contemplated hereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York (collectively, the “Specified Courts”), and each party irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. Service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth above shall be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The Company, the Guarantors, the Trustee and the Holders (by their acceptance of the Securities) each hereby irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the Specified Courts and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

 

Section 10.11     No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.

 

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

 

Section 10.12     Successors.

 

All agreements of the Company and the Guarantors in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind their respective successors. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.

 

Section 10.13     Severability.

 

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

Section 10.14     Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

 

The Table of Contents, Cross Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

 

Section 10.15     Securities in a Foreign Currency.

 

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in more than one currency, then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be determined by converting any such other currency into a currency that is designated upon issuance of any particular Series of Securities. Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, such conversion shall be made by the Company at the spot rate for the purchase of the designated currency as published in The Financial Times in the “Currency Rates” section (or, if The Financial Times is no longer published, or if such information is no longer available in The Financial Times, such source as may be selected in good faith by the Company) on any date of determination. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

 

All decisions and determinations provided for in the preceding paragraph shall, in the absence of manifest error, to the extent permitted by law, be conclusive for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Trustee and all Holders.

 

 

 

Section 10.16     Judgment Currency.

 

The Company and each Guarantor agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of or interest or other amount on the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a New York Banking Day, then the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the New York Banking Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable, and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture. For purposes of the foregoing, “New York Banking Day” means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

 

Section 10.17     USA Patriot Act.

 

The parties hereto acknowledge that, in accordance with Section 326 of the USA Patriot Act (Title III of Pub. L. 107-56 (signed into law October 26, 2001)) (as amended, modified or supplemented from time to time, the “USA Patriot Act”), the Trustee, like all financial institutions, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that opens an account. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as the Trustee may reasonably request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the USA Patriot Act.

 

Section 10.18     Force Majeure.

 

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, pandemics, epidemics, recognized public emergencies, quarantine restrictions, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services hacking, cyber-attacks, or other use or infiltration of the Trustee's technological infrastructure exceeding authorized access; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances..

 

ARTICLE XI.
SINKING FUNDS

 

Section 11.1     Applicability of Article.

 

The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of the Securities of a Series if so provided by the terms of such Securities pursuant to Section 2.2, except as otherwise permitted or required by any form of Security of such Series issued pursuant to this Indenture.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any Series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment” and any other amount provided for by the terms of Securities of such Series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any Series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 11.2. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any Series as provided for by the terms of the Securities of such Series.

 

 

 

Section 11.2     Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company may, in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of any Series to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities (1) deliver outstanding Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable (other than any of such Securities previously called for mandatory sinking fund redemption) and (2) apply as credit Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable and which have been repurchased by the Company or redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Series of Securities (except pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund) or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments or other optional redemptions pursuant to the terms of such Securities, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall