tm247219-2_424b5 - none - 9.3350407s
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 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424B5
 Registration Nos. 333-271113 and 333-271113-01
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
(To Prospectus dated April 4, 2023)
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SAFEHOLD GL HOLDINGS LLC
$300,000,000 6.100% Senior Notes due 2034
guaranteed by
SAFEHOLD INC.
Safehold GL Holdings LLC, which we refer to as the operating company, is offering $300,000,000 aggregate principal amount of its 6.100% Senior Notes due 2034, or the notes. Interest on the notes will be paid semi-annually in arrears on April 1 and October 1 of each year, beginning on October 1, 2024. The notes will mature on April 1, 2034. The operating company may, at its option, redeem the notes at any time in whole or from time to time in part at the applicable redemption price described in this prospectus supplement in the section entitled “Description of Notes — The operating company’s redemption rights.”
The notes will be our operating company’s direct, senior unsecured and unsubordinated obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of our operating company’s other senior unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness from time to time outstanding. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to our operating company’s existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness. In addition, the notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to all existing and future liabilities and other indebtedness, whether secured or unsecured, and any preferred equity of the operating company’s subsidiaries and in any entity the operating company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.
The notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior unsecured basis by Safehold Inc., the managing member of the operating company. Safehold Inc. does not have any material assets other than its investment in the operating company.
The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We do not intend to apply for listing of the notes on any securities exchange or for quotation of the notes on any automated dealer quotation system.
Investing in the notes involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement and the information set forth in our filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, that are incorporated herein by reference.
Per note
Total
Public offering price(1)
98.957% $ 296,871,000
Underwriting discount
0.650% $ 1,950,000
Proceeds, before expenses, to Safehold GL Holdings LLC
98.307% $ 294,921,000
(1)
Plus accrued interest from March 4, 2024, if settlement occurs after that date.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state or other securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
We expect that the notes will be ready for delivery in book-entry only form through The Depository Trust Company, Clearstream Banking S.A, and Euroclear Bank, SA/NV as operator of the Euroclear System on or about March 4, 2024.
Joint Book Running Managers
J.P. Morgan BofA Securities
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
Truist Securities
Mizuho Barclays
SMBC Nikko
Morgan Stanley
RBC Capital Markets
Senior Co-Managers
Raymond JamesCapital One Securities
Co-Managers
BNP PARIBAS
B. Riley Securities
Citizens Capital Markets
The date of this prospectus supplement is February 29, 2024.

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In deciding whether to purchase the notes, you should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with additional or different information. If anyone provides you with additional or different information, you should not rely on it.
You should not assume that the information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the respective dates of the documents in which the information is contained or such other dates as may be specified therein. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and prospects could have changed since those dates.
You should not consider any information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to be legal, tax or investment advice. You should consult your own counsel, accountant and other advisors for legal, tax, business, financial and related advice regarding any purchase of the common stock. Neither we nor any of the underwriters makes any representation regarding the legality of an investment in the common stock by any person under applicable investment or similar laws.
 
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Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus supplement to: (i) the “Company,” “Safehold Inc.,” “we,” “us,” “our” or “our company” means Safehold Inc., a Maryland corporation formerly known as iStar Inc., together with our consolidated subsidiaries, including Safehold GL Holdings LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, of which Safehold Inc. is the managing member and to which we refer in this prospectus supplement as our “operating company”; (ii) “iStar” means iStar Inc., a Maryland corporation, prior to its merger (the “merger”) with Old Safehold (as defined below) and (iii) “Old Safehold” means Safehold Inc., a Maryland corporation, prior to the merger. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential purchasers of the notes in this offering.
 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND THE PROSPECTUS
This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into the prospectus. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which gives more general information, some of which does not apply to this offering. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or in a prior filing that we made with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, the information in this prospectus supplement shall control. In addition, any statement in a filing we make with the SEC that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement that adds to, updates or changes information contained herein or in the accompanying prospectus or in any earlier filing we made with the SEC shall be deemed to modify and supersede such information contained herein or therein, as the case may be.
You should read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus together with the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. You should assume that the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the information we have previously filed, or subsequently file, with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, is accurate only as of its date or the dates which are specified in those documents.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements are included with respect to, among other things, our current business plan, business strategy, the unrealized capital appreciation in our owned residual portfolio, portfolio management, prospects,liquidity and this offering. These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words “believe,” “project,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “strategy,” “plan,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements. We do not guarantee that the transactions, events and other developments described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all). The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:

the risk factors included in this prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated herein by reference, including those set forth under the heading “Risk Factors”;

risks related to our recently completed merger and/or our recently consummated spin-off of Star Holdings (as defined below), including any delay in or our inability to realize expected benefits, risks of significant transaction costs and/or unknown liabilities, potential litigation and/or the potential disruption to our business from diverted management attention due to managing Star Holdings;

changes in our industry and changes in the real estate markets in particular, either nationally or regionally, and the potential adverse impact on us or our tenants from COVID-19 (coronavirus)and potential future health crises, including epidemics and pandemics;

the use of proceeds from the offering of the notes pursuant to this prospectus supplement;

general volatility of the capital and credit markets and the market price of our common stock;
 
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changes in our business and growth strategies;

market demand for our ground leases and availability of investment opportunities;

the terms of our long-term leases, particularly the efficacy of the rent adjustment provisions in keeping up with increases in inflation and market values;

defaults on, or non-renewal of, leases by tenants and landlord-tenant disputes;

bankruptcy or insolvency of a material tenant;

counterparty, geographic and industry concentrations in our portfolio;

the effects of interest rates on demand for ground leases and our ability to service our debt obligations as they come due;

declining real estate valuations;

the effect of certain rights of our tenants under our leases on our ability to realize the unrealized capital appreciation in our owned residual portfolio;

our ability to realize incremental value from the unrealized capital appreciation in our owned residual portfolio and to have such value reflected in the market price of our common stock;

value that will be attributed to Caret units in the future;

the accuracy and reasonableness of our underwriting assumptions with regard to properties under development or in transition;

availability, terms and deployment of capital;

our failure to obtain attractive or necessary outside financing;

our leverage;

the ability of tenants to obtain financing for their leasehold interests;

our failure to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness;

difficulties in identifying and completing acquisitions and other investment opportunities on favorable terms;

risks of real estate acquisitions, dispositions and development, including costs associated therewith;

our projected operating results;

our ability to manage our growth effectively;

our ability to expand into new markets;

estimates relating to our ability to make distributions to our stockholders in the future at the current rate or at all;

impact of changes in governmental regulations, tax law and rates and similar matters;

Safehold Inc.’s failure to maintain its qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”);

environmental uncertainties and risks related to adverse weather conditions and natural disasters;

lack or insufficient amounts of insurance by our tenants;

our exposure to litigation;

our exposure to cybersecurity risk and cyber incidents;

financial market fluctuations;

availability of, and our ability to attract and retain, qualified personnel;

the potential for conflicts of interest between holders of the shares of common stock and holders of other securities we have issued or may issue in the future, including limited liability company interests in our operating company, Caret units, preferred stock and debt securities;
 
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our understanding of our competition; and

our ability to comply with the laws, rules and regulations applicable to companies and, in particular, public companies.
While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future performance. We disclaim any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect changes in underlying assumptions or factors, of new information, data or methods, future events or other changes after the date of this prospectus supplement, except as required by applicable law. For a further discussion of these and other factors that could impact our future results, performance or transactions, see the sections entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement and the information set forth under the caption “Item 1a. Risk Factors” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as well as the other information set forth in our other filings under the Exchange Act that is incorporated herein by reference. You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based only on information currently available to us (or to third parties making the forward-looking statements).
CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS
Except where the context suggests otherwise, we defined certain terms in this prospectus supplement as follows:
aggregate cost basis” represents cost basis plus unfunded commitments of the core ground lease portfolio (as defined below). For unfunded commitments, it represents the aggregate future amount to be paid under the commitments.
aggregate gross book value” represents the gross book value plus unfunded commitments of the core ground lease portfolio. For unfunded commitments, it represents the aggregate future amount to be paid under the commitments.
annualized cash yield” is calculated as the annualized base cash rent plus percentage rent divided by cost basis, each for the core ground lease portfolio.
annualized yield” is calculated as the annualized base Net Rent plus percentage rent divided by gross book value, each for the core ground lease portfolio.
cash rent” represents base ground lease income recognized, excluding straight-line rent, amortization of lease intangibles and non-cash income from sales-type leases, each for the core ground lease portfolio.
combined property value” or “CPV” is the current combined value of the land, buildings and improvements relating to a commercial property, as if there was no ground lease on the land at the property. CPV is generally based on independent appraisals; however, we will use actual sales prices/management estimates for recently acquired and originated ground leases for which appraisals are not yet available. For construction projects, CPV represents the total cost associated with the acquisition, development and construction of the project.
core ground lease portfolio” represents the portfolio of assets owned at the date indicated and our proportionate share of two unconsolidated joint venture assets, as well as one ground lease asset in the GL Plus Fund that the company acquired in January 2024, and excludes (1) the secured loan entered into between the Company, as lender and administrative agent, and Star Holdings, as borrower, dated March 31, 2023, (2) the Company’s investment in the Leasehold Loan Fund and (3) the remainder of the GL Plus Fund.
cost basis” represents the historical purchase price of an asset in the core ground lease portfolio, including capitalized acquisition costs of the assets.
GAAP rent” is current period revenue from operating and sales-type leases recognized under GAAP, each for the core ground lease portfolio.
GL Plus Fund” is our investment fund that targets the origination and acquisition of ground leases for commercial real estate projects that are in a pre-development phase.
 
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gross book value” or “GBV” represents cost basis plus accrued interest on sales-type leases of the core ground lease portfolio. The amount is not reduced for current expected credit loss allowances.
ground lease-to-value” or “GLTV” is calculated as the aggregate GBV divided by CPV of the core ground lease portfolio. We use this metric to assess risk and our seniority level in a real estate capital structure, and believe it is similar to the concept of the loan-to-value metric used in the loan market.
Leasehold Loan Fund” is the investment fund that targets customers that may acquire a leasehold loan from the fund in connection with a ground lease with us.
Net Rent” is GAAP rent less depreciation and amortization for the core ground lease portfolio. This includes the amortization of a right of use asset recorded as real estate expense (totals $1.0 million annualized) and includes our proportionate share of GAAP rent and amortization from our equity method investments, each for the core ground lease portfolio.
owned residual portfolio” represents the portfolio of properties under which we own a ground lease and reflects our right to the land, property and tenant improvements at the end of the lease. The current value of “owned residual portfolio” is typically represented by combined property value of our portfolio.
percentage rent” represents trailing twelve-month cash percentage rent paid by the property.
property NOI” represents the net operating income of the building/our ground lease tenants prior to paying ground lease rent.
rent coverage” is the ratio of property NOI as provided by the building owner or estimated property NOI to the annualized cash rent due to us. We adjust property NOI for material non-recurring items and use estimates of the stabilized property NOI if we do not receive current tenant information and for properties under construction or transition, in each case based on leasing activity at the property and available market information, including leasing activity at comparable properties in the relevant market.
unrealized capital appreciation” or “UCA” is calculated as the difference between CPV of the core ground lease portfolio and the aggregate cost basis. We track UCA because we believe it provides relevant information with regard to the three key investment characteristics of our ground leases: (1) the safety of our position in a tenant’s capital structure; (2) the quality of the long-term cash flows generated by our portfolio rent that increases over time; and (3) increases and decreases in CPV of the portfolio that will ultimately revert to us.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
This summary highlights important information about this offering and some of the information in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference. It does not contain all the information that you should consider before making a decision to invest in the notes. You should read carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement and on page 5 of the accompanying prospectus, and the information set forth under the caption “Item 1a. Risk Factors” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as well as the other information set forth in our other filings under the Exchange Act that is incorporated herein by reference.
Our Company
We operate our business through one reportable segment by acquiring, managing and capitalizing ground leases. We also manage entities focused on ground leases and a wholly owned subsidiary of ours serves as external manager to Star Holdings, a Maryland statutory trust (“Star Holdings”), that holds the legacy non-ground lease assets previously held by iStar and Safe common stock.
Ground leases are long-term contracts between the landlord (us) and a tenant or leaseholder. Ground leases generally represent ownership of the land underlying commercial real estate projects that are net leased by the fee owner of the land to the owners/operators of the real estate projects built thereon (“Ground Leases”). Under a Ground Lease, the tenant is generally responsible for all property operating expenses, such as maintenance, real estate taxes and insurance, and is also responsible for development costs and capital expenditures. Ground Leases are typically long-term (base terms ranging from 30 to 99 years, often with tenant renewal options) and have contractual base rent increases (either at a specified percentage or consumer price index (“CPI”) based, or both) and sometimes include percentage rent participations.
Since Old Safehold’s initial public offering in 2017 through December 31, 2023, we have achieved significant growth in the value of our portfolio of properties, with aggregate gross book value and estimated unrealized capital appreciation growing by 19x and an estimated 22x, respectively. As of December 31, 2023, our portfolio of properties had an aggregate gross book value of $6.4 billion with estimated unrealized capital appreciation of $9.8 billion, compared to $6.2 billion of aggregate gross book value and $10.5 billion of estimated unrealized capital appreciation as of December 31, 2022. The aggregate gross book value as of December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019 and June 21, 2017 (the date Old Safehold priced our initial public offering) was $4.8 billion, $3.2 billion, $2.7 billion, and $0.3 billion, respectively, and the estimated unrealized capital appreciation as of such dates was $8.1 billion, $5.5 billion, $4.8 billion, and $0.4 billion, respectively. As of December 31, 2023, our core ground lease portfolio of properties had a gross book value of $6.3 billion, annualized yield of 5.2% and annualized cash yield of 3.5%. See “Aggregate Gross Book Value Reconciliation” below for a reconciliation of net investment in sales-type leases, ground lease receivables and real estate, net to gross book value and aggregate gross book value. On a weighted average basis as of December 31, 2023, ground lease-to-value was 44%, rent coverage was 3.6x and the remaining average lease term (assuming all extensions) was 92 years.
We had $3.9 billion of total unencumbered assets as of December 31, 2023. From December 31, 2020 to December 31, 2023, our unencumbered asset portfolio grew from 34 Ground Leases in 19 markets with 27 unique tenants to 96 Ground Leases in 34 markets with 67 unique tenants. Additionally, the number of leasehold lenders has increased from 16 to 38. For this portfolio, on a weighted average basis as of December 31, 2023, ground lease-to-value was 42%, rent coverage was 3.8x and the remaining average lease term (assuming all extensions) was 96 years.
The gross book value and estimated unrealized capital appreciation of our unencumbered asset portfolio increased from $0.8 billion and $1.4 billion, respectively, as of December 31, 2020 to $3.7 billion and $6.1 billion respectively, as of December 31, 2023. From December 31, 2020 to December 31, 2023, the ground lease-to-value and rent coverage for this portfolio each remained relatively constant, at 38% and 4.0x as of December 31, 2020, respectively, and 42% and 3.8x as of December 31, 2023, respectively. Additionally, our top ten unencumbered assets represented 33% of gross book value of our unencumbered assets as of December 31, 2023, versus 56% as of December 31, 2020.
 
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As of December 31, 2023, our unencumbered asset portfolio was 55% multi-family (61 assets), 25% office (21 assets), 7% hotels (seven assets), 9% life sciences (five assets) and 4% mixed use and other (two assets), measured by gross book value. We believe the diversification by geographic location, property type and sponsor in our portfolio further reduces risk and enhances potential upside.
We are also focused on increasing customer adoption. We increased the cumulative number of unique sponsors that we have pitched a ground lease from 31 as of December 31, 2017 to 838 as of December 31, 2023. Additionally, 38% of our customers have closed multiple deals with us and 71% of our existing customers have reviewed or are currently reviewing another deal with us.
Our principal executive offices are located at 1114 Avenue of the Americas, 39th Floor, New York, New York 10036, and our telephone number is (212) 930-9400. Our website is www.safeholdinc.com. Information contained in or that can be accessed through our website is not part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. The foregoing information about us is only a general summary and is not intended to be comprehensive. For additional information about us, you should refer to the information under “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement.
Aggregate Gross Book Value Reconciliation
The following table presents a reconciliation of net investment in sales-type leases to gross book value and aggregate gross book value as of June 21, 2017 (the date of Old Safehold’s initial public offering), as well as December 31, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023:
As of June 22,
As of December 31,
($ millions)
2017
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
Net investment in sales-type leases
$ 985 $ 1,306 $ 2,413 $ 3,107 $ 3,255
Ground Lease receivables
397 $ 577 $ 796 $ 1,375 $ 1,622
Pro-rata interest in Ground Leases held as equity method investments
340 $ 345 $ 441 $ 445 $ 493
Real estate, net (Operating Leases)
$ 265 $ 672 $ 730 $ 713 $ 707 $ 701(1)
Add: Accumulated depreciation
1 16 22 28 34 40
Add: Lease intangible assets, net
123 243 242 224 218 211
Add: Accumulated amortization
1 16 23 29 36 43
Add: Other assets
24 23 22 21 20
Add: Current expected credit loss allowance
1
Less: Lease intangible liabilities, net
(51) (57) (66) (65) (65) (64)
Less: Non-controlling interest
(2) (2) (2) (2) (19)
Gross book value
$ 339 $ 2,634 $ 3,201 $ 4,599 $ 5,876 $ 6,303
Add: Forward Commitments
81 19 166 308 136
Aggregate gross book value
$ 339 $ 2,715 $ 3,219 $ 4,764 $ 6,184 $ 6,439
Less: Accruals to net investment in leases and ground lease receivables
(7) (42) (101) (176) (265)
Aggregate Cost Basis
$ 339 $ 2,708 $ 3,177 $ 4,664 $ 6,008 $ 6,174
Less: Forward Commitments
(81) (19) (166) (308) (136)
Cost Basis
$ 339 $ 2,627 $ 3,159 $ 4,498 $ 5,700 $ 6,038
(1)
Excludes $3.0 million in other assets.
Aggregate gross book value is included in this prospectus supplement because it is a measure used by management and our board of directors to assess our balance sheet. Aggregate gross book value is not a GAAP measure and should not be considered as an alternative to gross book value as a measure of
 
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capitalization, or any other performance or balance sheet measure derived in accordance with GAAP. Aggregate gross book value is not necessarily comparable to similarly titled captions of other companies due to different methods of calculation.
Net Income Reconciliation
Our goal is to consistently deliver strong financial performance and continue to pursue growth opportunities in our industry. The following table presents a reconciliation of net income excluding merger and Caret related costs and non-recurring gains to net income for the three and twelve month periods ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:
Three Months Ended
December 31
Twelve Months Ended
December 31
($ thousands)
2023
2022
2023
2022
Net income (loss) attributable to Safehold Inc. common stockholders
$ 41,184 $ 21,795 $ (54,973) $ 135,423
Add: Impairment of goodwill(1)
145,365
Add: Merger & Caret related costs(1)
3,322 22,082 9,764
Less: Gain on sale of ground leases(2)
(447) (447) (55,811)
Less: Non-amortizable hedge gains
(15,191) (15,191)
Net income excluding merger & Caret related costs and non-recurring gains for the period
$ 25,547 $ 25,117 $ 96,837 $ 89,376
Impact attributable to noncontrolling interests
$ (154) $ 9,125
Net income attributable to Safehold Inc. common stockholders excluding merger & Caret related costs and non-recurring gains for the period
$ 25,547 $ 24,964 $ 96,837 $ 98,502
Weighted average number of shares of common stock – basic
71,068 63,587 66,690 62,393
Weighted average number of shares of common stock – diluted for net income excluding merger & Caret related costs and non-recurring gains for the period
71,115 63,587 66,707 62,394
Earnings per share excluding merger & Caret related costs and non-recurring gains for the period (basic and diluted)
$ 0.36 $ 0.39 $ 1.45 $ 1.58
(1)
Merger and Caret related costs for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2023 were $0.0 and $167.4 million, respectively, and, for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, include $145.4 million full impairment of goodwill, $10.1 million in expenses and reserves primarily related to legal, tax, accounting and other advisors, $6.7 million of transfer tax, and $5.3 million in general and administrative expenses primarily related to the termination of pre-existing iStar incentive plans and other miscellaneous items. Merger and Caret related costs for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2022, were $3.2 million and $9.4 million, respectively, primarily related to legal, tax and accounting. All figures are net of impact attributable to noncontrolling interests.
(2)
Includes sales of net investment in leases and ground lease receivables.
Net income attributable to Safehold Inc. common stockholders excluding merger & Caret related costs and non-recurring gains and earnings per share excluding merger & Caret related costs and non-recurring gains are non-GAAP measures used as supplemental performance measures to give management and investors a view of net income and earnings per share more directly derived from operating activities in the period in which they occur. Net income attributable to Safehold Inc. common stockholders excluding merger & Caret related costs and non-recurring gains is calculated as net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders, prior to the effect of non-recurring gains, and charges related to the merger, administration of Caret, origination of the secured term loan to Star Holdings and goodwill impairment, all as adjusted to exclude corresponding amounts allocable to noncontrolling interests. It should be examined in conjunction with net
 
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income (loss) attributable to common stockholders as shown in our consolidated statements of operations. Earnings per share excluding merger & Caret related costs and non-recurring gains is calculated as net income attributable to Safehold Inc. common stockholders excluding merger & Caret related costs and non-recurring gains divided by the weighted average number of shares of common stock. These metrics should not be considered as alternatives to net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders or earnings per share, respectively (in each case determined in accordance with GAAP). These measures may differ from similarly-titled measures used by other companies.
 
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THE OFFERING
The following contains basic information about the notes and is not complete. It does not contain all of the information that is important to you. For a more complete understanding of the notes, please refer to the sections entitled “Description of Notes” in this prospectus supplement and “Description of Debt Securities” in the accompanying prospectus. Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise required, references under this caption “The Offering” to Safehold GL Holdings LLC or the operating company refer to Safehold GL Holdings LLC, excluding its subsidiaries, and references to Safehold Inc. or the Company refer to Safehold Inc., excluding its subsidiaries.
Issuer
Safehold GL Holdings LLC
Guarantor
Safehold Inc.
Securities offered
$300,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 6.100% Senior Notes due 2034 (the “notes”).
Maturity Date
The notes will mature on April 1, 2034, unless redeemed, at our option, prior to such date.
Interest Rate
6.100% per year, accruing from, and including, March 4, 2024.
Interest Payment Dates
April 1 and October 1 of each year, beginning October 1, 2024.
Optional Redemption
The operating company may, at its option, redeem the notes at any time in whole or from time to time in part at the applicable redemption price described under “Description of Notes — The operating company’s redemption rights.”
Ranking of Notes
The notes will be the operating company’s senior unsecured obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of its other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

all of the operating company’s existing and future mortgage indebtedness and other secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness;

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the operating company’s subsidiaries and of any entity the operating company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the operating company, if any, in the operating company’s subsidiaries and in any entity the operating company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.
Assuming we had completed the offering of the notes on December 31, 2023, the notes would have been effectively subordinated to approximately $1.5 billion of total consolidated mortgage debt outstanding (which excludes $0.3 billion of mortgage debt, representing the operating company’s pro rata share of debt associated with the Company’s non-consolidated joint ventures (equity method investments)). At
 
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such date, the operating company’s subsidiaries had no unsecured indebtedness or preferred equity outstanding (which excludes certain preferred equity interests in certain of our subsidiaries). The notes will rank equally in right of payment with $400.0 million of 2.800% Senior Notes due 2031 issued by the operating company, $350.0 million of 2.850% Senior Notes due 2032 issued by the operating company, $475.0 million of 3.98% Senior Notes due 2052 issued by the operating company, $156.0 million of 5.15% Senior Notes due 2052 issued by the operating company, $1.1 billion of borrowings under our $1.35 billion unsecured revolving credit facility (the “2021 Revolver”), and any future senior unsecured indebtedness that the operating company may incur.
Guarantee
The notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. The Company guarantee will be a senior unsecured obligation of the Company and will rank equally in right of payment with all of its other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness and senior unsecured guarantees. The Company’s guarantee of the notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

all existing and future secured indebtedness and secured guarantees of the Company to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and guarantees;

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating company) and of any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the Company in the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating company) and in any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.
The Company has no material assets other than its investments in the operating company.
Certain Covenants
The indenture that will govern the notes will contain certain covenants that, among other things, require the maintenance of a certain percentage of total unencumbered assets by the operating company and limit the operating company, the Company and their subsidiaries’ ability to incur secured indebtedness and consummate a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of their respective assets. The covenants contained in the indenture are subject to a number of important exceptions and qualifications. For additional information, see “Description of Notes — Certain covenants.”
Absence of a Public Market for the Notes
The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. The operating company does not intend to apply for listing of the notes on any securities exchange or for quotation of the notes on any automated dealer quotation
 
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system. The underwriters have advised the operating company that they intend to make a market in the notes, but they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue any market-making at any time without notice.
Use of Proceeds
The operating company expects that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $294,071,000, after deducting the underwriting discount and our estimated expenses. The operating company intends to use the net proceeds from this offering to repay borrowings under the 2021 Revolver and for general corporate purposes, which may include making additional investments in Ground Leases, providing for working capital and funding obligations under existing Ground Lease commitments.
Conflicts of Interest
Affiliates of the underwriters are lenders under the 2021 Revolver and will receive a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to the extent such net proceeds are used to repay outstanding borrowings under the 2021 Revolver. See “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest) — Conflicts of Interest.”
Trustee
U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association (as successor in interest to U.S. Bank National Association) is trustee under the indenture relating to the notes.
Book-entry
The notes will be issued in book-entry only form and will be represented by one or more permanent global notes deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, and registered in the name of a nominee of DTC. Investors may elect to hold interests in the global notes through the facilities of any of DTC, Clearstream Banking S.A. or Euroclear Bank SA/NV as operator of the Euroclear System. Beneficial interests in the global notes will be shown on, and transfers will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC or its nominee, and such interests may not be exchanged for notes in certificated form, except in limited circumstances described under “Global Securities — Book-Entry, Delivery and Form” in the accompanying prospectus.
Tax Considerations
Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors with respect to the federal, state, local and foreign tax consequences of purchasing, owning and disposing of the notes. See “Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus.
Additional Issuances
The operating company may, from time to time, without the consent of holders of the notes, increase the principal amount of the notes by issuing additional notes in the future on the same terms and conditions (except for any difference in the issue date, initial public offering price and, if applicable, the date from which interest thereon will begin to accrue and the initial interest payment date) and with the same CUSIP number as the notes offered hereby so long as such additional notes are fungible for U.S. federal income tax purposes with the notes offered hereby. The notes offered by this prospectus supplement and any additional notes would rank equally and ratably in right of payment and would be treated as a single series of debt securities for all purposes under the indenture.
 
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Governing Law
The indenture, the notes and the guarantee will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.
Risk Factors
Investing in the notes involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully read and consider the information set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement and the information set forth under the caption “Item 1a. Risk Factors” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as well as the other information set forth in our other filings under the Exchange Act that is incorporated herein by reference, before making a decision to invest in the notes.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in the notes involves a high degree of risk. This section describes some, but not all, of the risks of investing in the notes. You should carefully consider the risk factors described below and the information set forth under the caption “Item 1a. Risk Factors” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as well as the other information set forth in our other filings under the Exchange Act that is incorporated herein by reference, before making an investment decision to purchase notes. In addition, you should carefully review the factors discussed below and the cautionary statements referred to in the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to this Offering
The effective subordination of the notes may limit our ability to satisfy our obligations under the notes.
The notes will be the operating company’s senior unsecured obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of its other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

all existing and future mortgage indebtedness and other secured indebtedness of the operating company to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and guarantees;

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the operating company’s subsidiaries and of any entity the operating company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the operating company in the operating company’s subsidiaries and in any entity the operating company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.
Similarly, the Company’s guarantee of the notes will be its senior unsecured obligation and will rank equally in right of payment with all of its other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness and senior unsecured guarantees. The Company’s guarantee of the notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

all existing and future secured indebtedness and secured guarantees of the Company to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and guarantees;

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating company) and of any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the Company in the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating company) and in any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.
Subject to specified requirements and limitations as described under “Description of Notes — Certain covenants — Maintenance of total unencumbered assets,” “Description of Notes — Certain covenants — Secured debt test” and “Description of Notes — Merger, consolidation or sale,” the indenture that will govern the notes will not prohibit the operating company, the Company or any of their respective subsidiaries or equity method investors from incurring secured or unsecured indebtedness or issuing preferred equity in the future.
In the event of the bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of the operating company or the Company, assets that secure any of their respective secured indebtedness, secured guarantees and other secured obligations will be available to pay their respective obligations under the notes or the guarantee of the notes, as applicable, and their other respective unsecured indebtedness, unsecured guarantees and other unsecured obligations only after all of their respective indebtedness, guarantees and other obligations secured by those assets has been repaid in full, and we caution you that there may not be sufficient assets remaining to pay amounts due on any or all the notes or the guarantee of the notes, as the case may be, then outstanding. In the event of the bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of any of subsidiaries of the operating company or the Company, the rights of holders of indebtedness and other
 
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obligations of the operating company (including the notes) or the Company (including its guarantee of the notes), as the case may be, will be effectively subordinated to the prior claims of that subsidiary’s creditors and of the holders of any indebtedness or other obligations of or guaranteed by that subsidiary, except to the extent that the operating company or the Company, as the case may be, is itself a creditor with recognized claims against that subsidiary, in which case those claims would still be effectively subordinated to all indebtedness, guarantees and other obligations secured by mortgages or other liens on the assets of that subsidiary to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and would be subordinate to all indebtedness, guarantees and other obligations of that subsidiary senior to those held by the operating company or the Company, as the case may be. Moreover, in the event of the bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of any subsidiary of the operating company or the Company, the rights of holders of indebtedness and other obligations of the operating company (including the notes) or the Company (including its guarantee of the notes), as the case may be, will be effectively subordinated to any preferred equity interests in that subsidiary held by persons other than the operating company or the Company, as the case may be. In addition, in the event of the bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization or other winding up of any entity that the operating company or the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting, the rights of holders of indebtedness and other obligations of the operating company (including the notes) or the Company (including its guarantee of the notes), as the case may be, will be subject to the prior claims of that entity’s creditors and the holders of any indebtedness or other obligations of or guaranteed by, or any preferred equity issued by, that entity, except to the extent that the operating company or the Company, as the case may be, is itself a creditor with recognized claims against that entity, in which case those claims would still be effectively subordinated to all indebtedness, guarantees and other obligations secured by mortgages or other liens on the assets of that entity to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and would be subordinate to all indebtedness, guarantees and other obligations of that entity senior to those held by the operating company or the Company, as the case may be.
Assuming we had completed the offering of the notes on December 31, 2023, the notes would have been effectively subordinated to approximately $1.5 billion of total consolidated mortgage debt outstanding (which excludes $0.3 billion of mortgage debt, representing the operating company’s pro rata share of debt associated with the Company’s non-consolidated joint ventures (equity method investments)). At such date, the operating company’s subsidiaries had no unsecured indebtedness or preferred equity outstanding (which excludes a preferred equity interest in an unconsolidated, non-controlled subsidiary). The notes will rank equally in right of payment with $400.0 million of 2.800% Senior Notes due 2031 issued by the operating company, $350.0 million of 2.850% Senior Notes due 2032 issued by the operating company, $475.0 million of 3.98% Senior Notes due 2052 issued by the operating company, $156.0 million of 5.15% Senior Notes due 2052 issued by the operating company, $1.1 billion of borrowings under the 2021 Revolver and any future senior unsecured indebtedness that the operating company may incur. As of December 31, 2023, the Company’s combined weighted average stated interest rate and combined weighted average cash interest rate of the Company’s consolidated mortgage debt, the mortgage debt of the Company’s unconsolidated ventures, unsecured senior notes and trust preferred securities were 3.85% and 3.34%, respectively.
We may not be able to meet our debt service obligations.
Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, including the notes, and to fund our operations, working capital and capital expenditures, depends on our ability to generate cash in the future. Our cash flow is subject to general economic, industry, financial, competitive, operating, legislative, regulatory, environmental and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.
The instruments and agreements governing some of our outstanding indebtedness (including borrowings under the revolving credit facilities) contain provisions that require us to repay that indebtedness under specified circumstances or upon the occurrence of specified events (including upon the acquisition by any person or group of more than a specified percentage of the aggregate voting power of the Company’s issued and outstanding voting stock, upon certain changes in the composition of a majority of the members of the Company’s board of directors, if the Company ceases to be the managing member of the operating company or the Company ceases to have the power to direct the management of the operating company) and our future debt agreements and debt securities may contain similar provisions or may require that we
 
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repay or repurchase or offer to repurchase for cash the applicable indebtedness under specified circumstances or upon the occurrence of specified changes of control of the Company or the operating company or other events. We may not have sufficient funds to pay our indebtedness when due (including upon any such required repurchase, repayment or offer to repurchase), and we may not be able to arrange for the financing necessary to make those payments or repurchases on favorable terms or at all. In addition, our ability to make required payments on our indebtedness when due (including upon any such required repurchase, repayment or offer to repurchase) may be limited by the terms of other debt instruments or agreements. Our failure to pay amounts due in respect of any of our indebtedness when due would generally constitute an event of default under the instrument governing that indebtedness, which could permit the holders of that indebtedness to require the immediate repayment of that indebtedness in full and, in the case of secured indebtedness, could allow them to sell the collateral securing that indebtedness and use the proceeds to repay that indebtedness. Moreover, any acceleration of or default in respect of any of our indebtedness could, in turn, constitute an event of default under other debt instruments or agreements, thereby resulting in the acceleration and required repayment of that other indebtedness. Any of these events could materially adversely affect our ability to make payments of principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness, including the notes, when due and could prevent us from making those payments altogether.
We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future sources of cash will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay amounts due on our indebtedness, including the notes, or to fund our other liquidity needs, including cash distributions to stockholders necessary to maintain the Company’s REIT qualification. Additionally, if we incur additional indebtedness in connection with future acquisitions or for any other purpose, our debt service obligations could increase.
We may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, including the notes, on or before maturity. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness or obtain additional financing will depend on, among other things:

our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations and market conditions at the time; and

restrictions in the agreements governing our indebtedness.
As a result, we may not be able to refinance our indebtedness, including the notes, on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations, and additional borrowings or refinancings or proceeds of asset sales or other sources of cash are not available to us, we may not have sufficient cash to enable us to meet all of our obligations, including payments on the notes. Accordingly, if we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as seeking additional equity or debt financing, delaying capital expenditures, or entering into strategic acquisitions and alliances.
Any of these events or circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, the trading price of our securities (including the notes) and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and to pay dividends and distributions to our security holders. In addition, foreclosures of properties that we own could create taxable income without accompanying cash proceeds, which could require us to raise capital or sell assets to generate the funds necessary to pay amounts due on our indebtedness, including the notes, and to meet the REIT distribution requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, even if such actions are not on favorable terms.
Despite our substantial indebtedness, we may still incur significantly more debt, which could exacerbate the risks related to our indebtedness, and adversely impact our ability to pay the principal of or interest on the notes.
We may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. Although the agreements governing our secured and unsecured indebtedness limit additional indebtedness, and the indenture governing the notes will require the operating company to maintain a certain percentage of total unencumbered assets and limit secured borrowings, these restrictions are subject to a number of significant exceptions and, in addition, we will have the ability to incur additional indebtedness, which could be substantial, without violating the limitations imposed by these debt instruments. To the extent we incur additional indebtedness, we may face additional risks associated with our indebtedness, including our possible inability to pay the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, the notes.
 
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The Company (which, for purposes of this risk factor and the immediately following risk factor, refers solely to Safehold Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries) has no significant operations, other than as the managing member of the operating company, and no material assets, other than its investment in the operating company.
The notes will be guaranteed by the Company. However, the Company has no significant operations, other than as the managing member of the operating company, and no material assets other than its investment in the operating company. Accordingly, if the operating company fails to make a payment on the notes when due, the Company generally will not have funds to pay that amount pursuant to its guarantee. Furthermore, as described above under “—The effective subordination of the notes may limit our ability to satisfy our obligations under the notes,” the Company’s guarantee will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

all existing and future secured indebtedness and secured guarantees of the Company to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness or guarantees;

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating company) and of any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

all existing and future preferred equity not owned by the Company in the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating company) and in any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.
Federal and state laws allow courts, under specific circumstances, to void guarantees and require holders of guaranteed debt to return payments received from guarantors.
Under the federal bankruptcy law and comparable provisions of state fraudulent transfer laws, a court could void the guarantee of the notes provided by the Company or could subordinate the guarantee to all other debts and guarantees of the Company if, among other things, the Company, at the time it incurred or entered into its guarantee of the notes, received less than reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration for the incurrence of the guarantee and any of the following is also true:

the Company was insolvent or rendered insolvent by reason of the incurrence of the guarantee;

the Company was engaged in a business or transaction for which its remaining assets constituted unreasonably small capital; or

the Company intended to incur, or believed that it would incur, debts beyond its ability to pay those debts as they mature.
In addition, under any of the circumstances described above, any payment by the Company pursuant to its guarantee of the notes could be voided and holders of the notes could be required to return those payments to the Company or to a fund for the benefit of the creditors of the Company.
The measures of insolvency for purposes of these fraudulent transfer laws will vary depending upon the law applied in any proceeding to determine whether a fraudulent transfer has occurred. Generally, however, a guarantor would be considered insolvent if:

the sum of its debts, including contingent liabilities, was greater than the fair saleable value of all of its assets;

the present fair saleable value of its assets was less than the amount that would be required to pay its probable liabilities on its existing debts, including contingent liabilities, as they became due; or

it could not pay its debts as they became due.
Moreover, a court might also void the Company’s guarantee of the notes, without regard to the above factors, if it found that the Company entered into its guarantee with actual or deemed intent to hinder, delay, or defraud its creditors.
We cannot be certain as to the standards a court would use to determine whether reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration was received by the Company for its guarantee of the notes. If a court voided such
 
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guarantee, holders of the notes would no longer have a claim against the Company under such guarantee. In addition, the court might direct holders of the notes to repay any amounts already received from the Company under its guarantee.
If the court were to void the Company’s guarantee, require the return of monies paid by the Company under its guarantee or subordinate the guarantee to other obligations of the Company, we could not assure you that funds to pay the notes would be available from the operating company or any of our other subsidiaries or from any other source.
There is currently no trading market for the notes, and an active public trading market for the notes may not develop or, if it develops, be maintained or be liquid. The failure of an active public trading market for the notes to develop or be maintained is likely to adversely affect the market price and liquidity of the notes.
The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We do not intend to apply for listing of the notes on any securities exchange or for inclusion in any quotation system. Although the underwriters have advised us that they intend to make a market in the notes, they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue any market-making at any time without notice. Accordingly, an active public trading market may not develop for the notes and, even if one develops, may not be maintained or be liquid. If an active public trading market for the notes does not develop or is not maintained, the market price and liquidity of the notes are likely to be adversely affected and holders may not be able to sell their notes at desired times and prices or at all. If any of the notes are traded after their purchase in this offering, they may trade at a discount, which could be substantial, from their purchase price.
The liquidity of the trading market, if any, and future trading prices of the notes will depend on many factors, including, among other things, prevailing interest rates, the financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, business, prospects and credit quality of the operating company and its subsidiaries and the Company and its subsidiaries and other comparable entities, the market for similar securities and the overall securities markets, and may be adversely affected by unfavorable changes in any of these factors, many of which are beyond our control. In addition, market volatility or events or developments in the credit markets could materially and adversely affect the market value of the notes, regardless of the operating company’s, the Company’s or their respective subsidiaries’ financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, business, prospects or credit quality.
The market price of the notes may fluctuate significantly.
The market price of the notes may fluctuate significantly in response to many factors, including:

our failure to effectively manage our operations following the merger;

our operating performance and the performance of other similar companies;

actual or anticipated differences in our quarterly or annual operating results from those expected;

our failure to negotiate and consummate purchase agreements relating to investments under letters of intent or otherwise meet expectations with respect to the growth of our business;

changes in recommendations by securities analysts;

publication of research reports about us, the ground net lease sector or the real estate industry;

increases in market interest rates, which may lead investors to demand a higher distribution yield for shares of our common stock, and would result in increased interest expense on our debt;

actual or anticipated changes in our and our tenants’ businesses or prospects;

the current state of the credit and capital markets, and our ability and the ability of our tenants to obtain financing on favorable terms;

the departures of key personnel;

increased competition in the ground lease business in our markets;

strategic decisions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions, divestments, spin-offs, joint ventures, strategic investments or changes in business or growth strategies;
 
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the passage of legislation or other regulatory developments that adversely affect us or our industry;

adverse speculation in the press or investment community;

actions by institutional stockholders;

sales of Caret units to third parties by our operating company;

actual, potential or perceived accounting problems;

changes in accounting principles;

changes in our credit ratings;

failure to qualify as a REIT;

failure of the Company to comply with the rules of the NYSE or maintain the listing of our common stock on the NYSE;

terrorist acts, natural or man-made disasters or threatened or actual armed conflicts; and

general market and local, regional and national economic conditions, including factors unrelated to our operating performance and prospects such as inflation, the COVID-19 pandemic and potential future health crises, including epidemics and pandemics.
Many of the factors listed above are beyond our control. These factors may cause the market price of the notes to decline, regardless of our financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, business or prospects. It is impossible to provide any assurance that the market price of the notes will not fall in the future, and it may be difficult for investors to resell the notes at prices they find attractive or at all.
Holders of the notes will not be entitled to require us to redeem or repurchase the notes upon the occurrence of change of control or highly levered transactions or other designated events.
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $4.1 billion of indebtedness outstanding (which includes $100 million of trust preferred securities of a consolidated subsidiary that bear interest at a per annum rate equal to three-month adjusted term SOFR plus 1.50% and excludes $0.3 billion of mortgage debt, representing our pro rata share of debt associated with our non-consolidated joint ventures (equity method investments)), $233 million of borrowing capacity available (subject to customary conditions) under our 2021 Revolver and $500 million of borrowing capacity available (subject to customary conditions) under our $500 million unsecured revolving credit facility (the “2023 Revolver” and, together with the 2021 Revolver, the “Unsecured Revolvers”). The instruments and agreements governing some of our outstanding indebtedness (including borrowings under the Unsecured Revolvers) contain provisions that require us to repay that indebtedness under specified circumstances or upon the occurrence of specified events (including upon the acquisition by any person or group of more than a specified percentage of the aggregate voting power of the Company’s issued and outstanding voting stock, upon certain changes in the composition of a majority of the members of the Company’s board of directors, if the Company ceases to be the managing member of the operating company or the Company ceases to have the power to direct the management of the operating company) and our future debt agreements and debt securities may contain similar provisions or may require that we repay or repurchase or offer to repurchase for cash the applicable indebtedness under specified circumstances or upon the occurrence of specified changes of control of the Company or the operating company or other events. The notes offered hereby do not have any similar rights to require us to repurchase or repay the notes, whether upon the occurrence of a change of control or highly leveraged transaction or otherwise, even though these transactions could increase the amount of our indebtedness or otherwise adversely affect our capital structure or credit ratings, thereby adversely affecting the market value of the notes. These provisions may also allow holders of that other indebtedness to be repaid upon the occurrence of specified transactions or events, which may deplete our available cash and sources of financing and make it difficult or impossible for us to make payments on the notes when due.
An increase in interest rates could result in a decrease in the market value of the notes.
In general, as market interest rates rise, notes bearing interest at a fixed rate generally decline in value and notes bearing interest at a floating rate generally generate additional interest expense. Consequently, if
 
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you purchase these notes and market interest rates increase, the market value of your notes may decline. We cannot predict the future level of market interest rates.
A downgrade in our credit ratings could materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operation and, cash flows and our ability to service our debt service obligations and the market value of the notes.
The credit ratings assigned to the notes and other debt securities of the operating company and our access to debt capital markets could change based upon, among other things, our operating performance, liquidity and leverage ratios. Our credit ratings from major national credit ratings agencies are currently investment grade. However, these ratings are subject to ongoing evaluation by credit rating agencies, and we cannot assure you that any rating will not be changed or withdrawn by a credit rating agency in the future in response to adverse changes in these metrics caused by our operating results or by actions that we take that reduce our operating results or that require us to incur additional indebtedness. Moreover, these credit ratings are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold the notes or any other securities. If any of the credit rating agencies that have rated the notes or other debt securities of the operating company downgrades or lowers its credit rating, or if any credit rating agency indicates that it has placed any such rating on a so-called “watch list” for a possible downgrading or lowering or otherwise indicates that its outlook for that rating is not positive, it could have a material adverse effect on our costs and ability to raise capital in the debt capital markets, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations (including payments on the notes) and to make dividends and distributions to our security holders and could also have a material adverse effect on the market value of the notes.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $294.1 million, after deducting the underwriting discount and the other estimated offering expenses payable by us. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to repay borrowings under the 2021 Revolver and for general corporate purposes, which may include making additional investments in Ground Leases, providing for working capital and funding obligations under existing Ground Lease commitments.
The 2021 Revolver has an initial maturity of March 2024 (with two 12-month extension options exercisable by us, subject to certain conditions) and currently bears interest at an annual rate of adjusted term SOFR plus 0.9%, which as of December 31, 2023 was approximately 6.4%. As of December 31, 2023, approximately $1.1 billion was outstanding under the 2021 Revolver.
Any borrowings under the 2021 Revolver that are repaid with such net proceeds may be reborrowed, subject to customary conditions. Affiliates of the underwriters are lenders under the 2021 Revolver and will receive a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to the extent such net proceeds are used to repay outstanding borrowings under the 2021 Revolver. See “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest) — Conflicts of Interest .”
 
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DESCRIPTION OF NOTES
The following description summarizes key terms and provisions of the notes, the guarantee and the indenture referred to below. The following description of the notes does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the actual terms and provisions of the notes, the guarantee and the indenture, which are incorporated herein by reference. We urge you to read those documents in their entirety because they, and not this description nor the description in the accompanying prospectus, define your rights as a holder of notes. You may request a copy of those documents from us as described in “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus. The information in this section supplements and, to the extent inconsistent therewith, replaces the information in the accompanying prospectus under the caption “Description of Debt Securities.”
Capitalized terms used but not otherwise defined herein shall have the meanings given to them in the notes or the indenture, as applicable. As used in this “Description of Notes,” references to the “operating company,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer solely to Safehold GL Holdings LLC and not to any of its subsidiaries and references to the “Company” or “guarantor” refer solely to Safehold Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires. Unless the context requires otherwise, references to “dollars” mean U.S. dollars. Capitalized terms used in this section have the meaning set forth below in “— Definitions.”
General
The notes will be issued pursuant to an indenture dated as of May 7, 2021, among the operating company, the Company, as guarantor, and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee, as supplemented by the fourth supplemental indenture, dated as of March 4, 2024, among the operating company, the Company, as guarantor, and U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association (as successor in interest to U.S. Bank National Association), as trustee. We refer to the indenture, as supplemented, as the “indenture.”
The terms of the notes include those provisions contained in the notes and the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. The notes are subject to all such terms, and holders of notes are referred to the notes, the indenture and the Trust Indenture Act for a statement thereof. You may request copies of the indenture and the form of the notes from us.
The notes will be issued only in fully registered, book-entry form, in minimum denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof, except under the limited circumstances described below under “— Book-Entry System.” The principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, the notes will be payable in U.S. dollars. The registered holder of a note will be treated as its owner for all purposes.
If any interest payment date, stated maturity date or redemption date is not a business day, the payment otherwise required to be made on such date will be made on the next business day without any additional payment as a result of such delay. The term “business day” means, with respect to any note, any day, other than a Saturday, Sunday or any other day on which banking institutions in New York, New York or the place of payment are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close.
The notes will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company on a senior unsecured basis. See “— Guarantee” below.
The terms of the notes provide that the operating company is permitted to reduce interest payments and payments upon a redemption of notes otherwise payable to a holder for any amounts the operating company is required to withhold by law. For example, non-United States holders of the notes may, under some circumstances, be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax with respect to payments of interest on the notes. The operating company will set-off any such withholding tax that the operating company is required to pay against payments of interest payable on the notes and payments upon a redemption of notes.
Ranking
The notes will be the operating company’s senior unsecured obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with all of the operating company’s other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness. The notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:
 
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all of the operating company’s existing and future mortgage indebtedness and other secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness;

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the operating company’s subsidiaries and of any entity the operating company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

all existing and future preferred equity or different classes of senior equity interests not owned by the operating company, if any, in the operating company’s subsidiaries and in any entity the operating company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.
Assuming we had completed the offering of the notes on December 31, 2023, the notes would have been effectively subordinated to approximately $1.5 billion of total consolidated mortgage debt outstanding (which excludes $0.3 billion of mortgage debt, representing the operating company’s pro rata share of debt associated with the Company’s non-consolidated joint ventures (equity method investments)) to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness. At such date, the operating company’s subsidiaries had no unsecured indebtedness or preferred equity outstanding (which excludes a preferred equity interest in an unconsolidated, non-controlled subsidiary). The notes will rank equally in right of payment with $400.0 million of 2.800% Senior Notes due 2031 issued by the operating company, $350.0 million of 2.850% Senior Notes due 2032 issued by the operating company, $475.0 million of 3.98% Senior Notes due 2052 issued by the operating company, $156.0 million of 5.15% Senior Notes due 2052 issued by the operating company, $1.1 billion of borrowings under the 2021 Revolver and any future senior unsecured indebtedness that the operating company may incur.
In addition, as of December 31, 2023, there were limited liability company interests in our operating company, which we refer to as Caret units, that generally entitle holders to amounts equal to the net proceeds from the disposition of Ground Lease assets in excess of the cost borne by us to acquire such Ground Lease assets (including amounts paid to the tenants in connection with the initial development of improvements at the properties). See “Description of Capital Stock — Caret Units” in the accompanying prospectus.
See “— Guarantee” below for a description of the ranking of the guarantee.
Except as described under “— Certain covenants” and “— Merger, consolidation or sale,” the indenture that will govern the notes will not prohibit the operating company, the Company or any of their respective subsidiaries from incurring secured or unsecured indebtedness or issuing preferred equity or different classes of senior equity interests in the future and, although the indenture will contain covenants that will limit the ability of the operating company and its subsidiaries to incur secured indebtedness, those covenants are subject to significant exceptions, and in any event the operating company and its subsidiaries may be able, without taking advantage of any such exceptions, to incur substantial amounts of additional secured and unsecured indebtedness without violating those covenants. For additional information, see “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to this Offering — The effective subordination of the notes may limit our ability to satisfy our obligations under the notes.”
Additional notes
The notes will initially be limited to an aggregate principal amount of $300,000,000. The operating company may, without the consent of holders of the notes, increase the principal amount of the notes by issuing additional notes in the future on the same terms and conditions (except for any difference in the issue date, initial public offering price and, if applicable, the date from which interest thereon will begin to accrue and the initial interest payment date) and with the same CUSIP number as the notes offered hereby so long as such additional notes are fungible for U.S. federal income tax purposes with the notes offered hereby. The notes offered by this prospectus supplement and any additional notes would rank equally and ratably in right of payment and would be treated as a single series of debt securities for all purposes under the indenture.
Interest
Interest on the notes will accrue at the rate of 6.100% per year from and including March 4, 2024 or the most recent interest payment date to which interest has been paid or provided for and will be payable
 
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semi- annually in arrears on April 1 and October 1 of each year, beginning October 1, 2024. The interest so payable will be paid to each holder in whose name a note is registered at the close of business on the March 15 or September 15 (whether or not a business day) immediately preceding the applicable interest payment date.
Interest on the notes will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months.
Maturity
The notes will mature on April 1, 2034 and will be paid against presentation and surrender thereof at the designated corporate trust office of the trustee unless earlier redeemed by us at our option as described under “— The operating company’s redemption rights” below. The notes will not be entitled to the benefits of, or be subject to, any sinking fund.
The operating company’s redemption rights
Prior to January 1, 2034 (three months prior to their stated maturity date) (the “Par Call Date”), the operating company may redeem the notes at its option, in whole or in part, at any time and from time to time, at a redemption price in cash (expressed as a percentage of principal amount and rounded to three decimal places) equal to the greater of:
(1)   (a) the sum of the present values of the remaining scheduled payments of principal and interest thereon discounted to the redemption date (assuming the notes matured on the Par Call Date) on a semi-annual basis (assuming a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) at the Treasury Rate plus 30 basis points less (b) unpaid interest accrued thereon to, but not including, the date of redemption, and
(2)   100% of the principal amount of the notes to be redeemed,
plus, in either case, unpaid interest accrued thereon to, but not including, the redemption date.
On or after the Par Call Date, the operating company may redeem the notes, in whole or in part, at any time and from time to time, at a redemption price in cash equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes being redeemed plus unpaid interest accrued thereon to, but not including, the redemption date.
“Treasury Rate” means, with respect to any redemption date, the yield determined by the operating company in accordance with the following two paragraphs.
The Treasury Rate shall be determined by the operating company as of 4:15 p.m., New York City time (or after such time as yields on U.S. government securities are posted daily by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System), on the third business day preceding the date the notice of redemption is given based upon the yield or yields for the most recent day that appear as of such time on such day in the most recent statistical release published by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System designated as “Selected Interest Rates (Daily) — H.15” ​(or any successor designation or publication) (“H.15”) under the caption “U.S. government securities — Treasury constant maturities — Nominal” ​(or any successor caption or heading) (“H.15 TCM”). In determining the Treasury Rate, the operating company shall select, as applicable: (1) the yield for the Treasury constant maturity on H.15 exactly equal to the period from the redemption date to the Par Call Date (the “Remaining Life”); or (2) if there is no such Treasury constant maturity on H.15 exactly equal to the Remaining Life, the two yields — one yield corresponding to the Treasury constant maturity on H.15 immediately shorter than and one yield corresponding to the Treasury constant maturity on H.15 immediately longer than the Remaining Life — and shall interpolate to the Par Call Date on a straight-line basis (using the actual number of days) using such yields and rounding the result to three decimal places; or (3) if there is no such Treasury constant maturity on H.15 shorter than or longer than the Remaining Life, the yield for the single Treasury constant maturity on H.15 closest to the Remaining Life. For purposes of this paragraph, the applicable Treasury constant maturity or maturities on H.15 shall be deemed to have a maturity date equal to the relevant number of months or years, as applicable, of such Treasury constant maturity from the redemption date.
If on the third business day preceding the date the notice of redemption is given H.15 TCM is no longer published, the operating company shall calculate the Treasury Rate based on the rate per annum
 
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equal to the semi-annual equivalent yield to maturity at 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the second business day preceding the date the notice of redemption is given of the United States Treasury security maturing on, or with a maturity that is closest to, the Par Call Date, as applicable. If there is no United States Treasury security maturing on the Par Call Date but there are two or more United States Treasury securities with a maturity date equally distant from the Par Call Date, one with a maturity date preceding the Par Call Date and one with a maturity date following the Par Call Date, the operating company shall select the United States Treasury security with a maturity date preceding the Par Call Date. If there are two or more United States Treasury securities maturing on the Par Call Date or two or more United States Treasury securities meeting the criteria of the preceding sentence, the operating company shall select from among these two or more United States Treasury securities the United States Treasury security that is trading closest to par based upon the average of the bid and asked prices for such United States Treasury securities at 11:00 a.m., New York City time. In determining the Treasury Rate in accordance with the terms of this paragraph, the semi-annual yield to maturity of the applicable United States Treasury security shall be based upon the average of the bid and asked prices (expressed as a percentage of principal amount) at 11:00 a.m., New York City time, of such United States Treasury security, and rounded to three decimal places.
The operating company’s actions and determinations in determining the redemption price shall be conclusive and binding for all purposes, absent manifest error.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, installments of interest that are due and payable on any interest payment date falling on or prior to a redemption date will be payable to the persons who were the registered holders of the notes (or one or more predecessor notes) at the close of business on the relevant record date for such interest payment date according to their terms and the provisions of the indenture. Written notice of redemption must be given to the Trustee on the date that the Redemption Price is determined and to the holders of the notes (or portions thereof) to be redeemed (with a copy to the Trustee) not less than 10 nor more than 60 days prior to the redemption date.
If the operating company redeems the notes in part, the trustee will select the notes to be redeemed (in principal amounts of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof) by lot or such method as it deems fair and appropriate or, if applicable, as is required by the depository for notes in global form.
In the event of any redemption of notes, the operating company will not be required to:

register the transfer of or exchange any note during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the mailing of notice of redemption of the notes and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or

register the transfer of or exchange any note so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any note being redeemed in part.
Unless the operating company defaults in the payment of the redemption price and accrued interest on the notes (or portions thereof) called for redemption on a redemption date, then, from and after the redemption date, such notes (or portions thereof, as the case may be) shall cease to bear interest.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, the operating company will not redeem the notes on any date if the principal amount of the notes has been accelerated, and the acceleration has not been rescinded or cured on or prior to the redemption date.
Certain covenants
Maintenance of total unencumbered assets.   The notes will provide that the operating company will not have at any time Total Unencumbered Assets of less than 125% of the aggregate principal amount of all of its and its Subsidiaries’ outstanding Unsecured Debt determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP.
Secured debt test.   The operating company will not, and will not permit any of its Subsidiaries to, incur any Debt secured by any Lien on any of its or any of its Subsidiaries’ property or assets, whether owned on the date of the indenture or subsequently acquired, if, immediately after giving effect to the incurrence of such Debt and the application of the proceeds from such Debt on a pro forma basis, the aggregate principal amount (determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP) of all of its and
 
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its Subsidiaries’ outstanding Debt that is secured by a Lien on any of its and its Subsidiaries’ property or assets is greater than 50% of the sum of (without duplication):

its and its Subsidiaries’ Total Assets as of the last day of the then most recently ended fiscal quarter for which financial information is available prior to the incurrence of such additional Debt; and

the aggregate purchase price of any real estate assets or mortgages receivable acquired, and the aggregate amount of any securities offering proceeds received (to the extent such proceeds were not used to acquire real estate assets or mortgages receivable or used to reduce Debt), by the operating company or any of its Subsidiaries since the end of such fiscal quarter, including the proceeds obtained from the incurrence of such additional Debt and any substantially concurrent offering of other securities.
For purposes of the above two covenants, Debt will be deemed to be incurred by the operating company or any of its Subsidiaries whenever the operating company or such Subsidiary shall create, assume, guarantee (on a non-contingent basis) or otherwise become liable in respect thereof.
Existence.   Except as permitted by the covenant described under “— Merger, consolidation or sale,” the notes will provide that the operating company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its existence, rights (charter and statutory) and franchises, and the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its existence, rights (charter and statutory) and franchises. However, neither the operating company nor the Company will be required to preserve any right or franchise if the Company’s board of directors (or any duly authorized committee of that board of directors), as the case may be, determines that the preservation of the right or franchise is no longer desirable in the conduct of our or the Company’s business, as the case may be.
Payment of taxes and other claims.   The notes will provide that each of the operating company and the Company will each pay or discharge or cause to be paid or discharged before it becomes delinquent:

all taxes, assessments and governmental charges levied or imposed on it or any of its Subsidiaries or on its or any such Subsidiary’s income, profits or property; and

all lawful claims for labor, materials and supplies that, if unpaid, might by law become a Lien upon its property or the property of any of its Subsidiaries.
However, neither the operating company nor the Company will be required to pay or discharge or cause to be paid or discharged any tax, assessment, charge or claim the amount, applicability or validity of which is being contested in good faith.
Provision of financial information.   For so long as the notes are outstanding, if at any time the Company is not subject to the periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act for any reason, we will, at our option, either (i) post on a publicly available website, (ii) post on IntraLinks or any comparable password protected online data system requiring user identification and a confidentiality acknowledgement (a “Confidential Datasite”), or (iii) deliver to the trustee and the holders of the notes within 15 days of the filing date that would be applicable to a non-accelerated filer at that time pursuant to applicable SEC rules and regulations, the quarterly and audited annual financial statements and accompanying “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” that would have been required to be contained in annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, respectively, had we been subject to such Exchange Act reporting requirements. The trustee shall have no obligation to determine whether or not such reports, information, statements or documents have been filed, posted or delivered. Delivery of such reports, information, statements and documents to the trustee is for informational purposes only and the trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including our compliance with any of our covenants under the indenture. If we elect to furnish such reports via a Confidential Datasite, access to the Confidential Datasite will be provided upon request to holders, beneficial owners of and bona fide potential investors in the notes.
Reports, information and documents filed with the SEC via the EDGAR system will be deemed to be delivered to the trustee as of the time of such filing via EDGAR for purposes of this covenant; provided, however, that the trustee shall have no obligation whatsoever to determine whether or not such information,
 
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documents or reports have been filed via EDGAR. Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the trustee is for informational purposes only and the trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants relating to the notes (as to which the trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on officers’ certificates).
The covenants described under this caption “— Certain covenants” shall, insofar as they relate to the notes, be subject to covenant defeasance as described under “— Defeasance — Defeasance of certain covenants,” provided that, notwithstanding the foregoing, the covenant of the operating company and the Company to do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect their respective existence (except as permitted by the provisions described under “— Merger, consolidation or sale”) and the provisions described above under “— Provision of financial information” shall not be subject to covenant defeasance. In addition, the operating company and the Company may omit in any particular instance to comply, insofar as relates to the notes, with any covenant described under this caption “— Certain covenants” ​(other than the covenant described under “— Provision of financial information”) if the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding notes waive such compliance.
Guarantee
The Company will fully and unconditionally guarantee the operating company’s obligations under the notes, including the due and punctual payment of principal of and premium, if any, and interest on the notes, whether at stated maturity, upon acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise. Under the terms of the Company’s guarantee, holders of the notes will not be required to exercise their remedies against the operating company before they proceed directly against the Company. The Company’s obligations under the guarantee of the notes will be limited to the maximum amount that will not, after giving effect to all other contingent and fixed liabilities of the Company, result in the guarantee constituting a fraudulent transfer or conveyance. See “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to this Offering — Federal and state laws allow courts, under specific circumstances, to void guarantees and require holders of guaranteed debt to return payments received from guarantors.”
The guarantee of the notes will be a senior unsecured obligation of the Company and will rank equally in right of payment with all other existing and future senior unsecured indebtedness and senior unsecured guarantees of the Company. The Company’s guarantee of the notes will be effectively subordinated in right of payment to:

all existing and future secured indebtedness and secured guarantees of the Company to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and guarantees;

all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities, whether secured or unsecured, of the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating company) and of any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting; and

all existing and future preferred equity or different classes of senior equity interests not owned by the Company in the Company’s subsidiaries (including the operating company) and in any entity the Company accounts for using the equity method of accounting.
The Company’s guarantee of the notes will rank senior in right of payment to all existing and future indebtedness and guarantees of the Company to the extent such indebtedness and guarantees are contractually subordinated in right of payment to the notes, including the Company’s subordinated intercompany note issued to its consolidated subsidiary in connection with such subsidiary’s $100.0 million of trust preferred securities that bear interest at a per annum rate equal to three-month adjusted term SOFR plus 1.50%.
The covenants in the indenture that will limit the ability of the operating company and its subsidiaries to incur indebtedness will not apply to the Company.
The Company has no significant operations, other than as the operating company’s managing member, and no material assets, other than its investment in the operating company. Accordingly, if the operating company fails to make a payment on the notes when due, the Company generally will not have funds to pay that amount pursuant to its guarantee. See “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to this Offering — The
 
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Company has no significant operations, other than as the managing member of the operating, and no material assets, other than its investment in the operating company.”
For additional information, see “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to this Offering — The effective subordination of the notes may limit our ability to satisfy our obligations under the notes.”
Merger, consolidation or sale
The indenture will provide that the operating company and the Company may consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of their respective assets to, or merge with or into, any other entity, provided that the following conditions are met:

the operating company or the Company, as the case may be, shall be the continuing entity, or the successor entity (if other than the operating company or the Company, as the case may be) formed by or resulting from any consolidation or merger or which shall have received the transfer of assets shall be domiciled in the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia and, in the case of the operating company, shall expressly assume by supplemental indenture payment of the principal of and premium, if any, and interest on all of the notes and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions in the indenture or, in the case of the Company, shall expressly assume by supplemental indenture the payment of all amounts due under its guarantee of the notes and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions of the Company in the indenture and the guarantee, as the case may be;

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Event of Default under the indenture, and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

an officer’s certificate and legal opinion each stating that the conditions precedent relating to such supplemental indenture have been met, and such supplemental indenture is permitted under the indenture shall be delivered to the trustee.
In the event of any transaction described in and complying with the conditions listed in the immediately preceding paragraphs, but not a lease, in which the operating company and/or the Company are not the continuing entity, the successor person formed or remaining shall succeed, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of the operating company and/or the Company, and the operating company and/or the Company shall be discharged from their respective obligations under the notes and the indenture.
Events of default
The indenture provides that the following events are “Events of Default” with respect to the notes:

default for 30 days in the payment of any installment of interest under the notes;

default in the payment of the principal amount or redemption price due with respect to the notes, when the same becomes due and payable;

failure by us or the Company to comply with any of our or the Company’s respective other agreements in the notes, the guarantee or the indenture with respect to the notes upon receipt by us of notice of such default by the trustee or by holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the notes then outstanding and our failure to cure (or obtain a waiver of) such default within 90 days after we receive such notice;

failure to pay any Debt (other than Non-Recourse Debt) for monies borrowed by the operating company, the Company or any of their respective Significant Subsidiaries in an outstanding principal amount in excess of the Cross-Default Threshold at final maturity or upon acceleration after the expiration of any applicable grace period, which Debt (other than Non-Recourse Debt) is, or has become, the primary obligation of the operating company or the Company and is not discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration is not cured or rescinded, within 60 days after written notice to the operating company from the trustee (or to the operating company and the trustee from holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding notes);
 
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the Company’s guarantee of the notes ceases to be in full force and effect (except as contemplated by the terms of the indenture) or is declared null and void in a judicial proceeding or the Company denies or disaffirms its obligations under the indenture or its guarantee; or

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of the operating company, the Company or any Significant Subsidiary or all or substantially all of their respective property.
For purposes of the fourth bullet above, “Cross-Default Threshold” means (a) the payment “cross-default” threshold (as that term is generally understood) in the Primary Credit Facility or (b) if the Primary Credit Facility is terminated or no longer includes a payment cross-default threshold, $60.0 million; and “Primary Credit Facility” means the Credit Agreement dated as of March 31, 2021 (amended, restated, supplemented or otherwise modified from time to time prior to the issuance date of the notes) among the operating company (as successor to Safehold Operating Partnership LP), Safehold Inc., JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, and the other lenders party thereto, including any renewals, extensions, amendments, restatements, replacements or refinancing in full (or a majority) thereof after the issuance date of the notes.
If an Event of Default under the indenture with respect to the notes occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default specified in the last bullet above with respect to the operating company, or the Company, which shall result in an automatic acceleration), then in every case the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding notes may declare the principal amount of all of the notes to be due and payable immediately by written notice thereof to us and the Company (and to the trustee if given by the holders). However, at any time after the declaration of acceleration with respect to the notes has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of outstanding notes may waive all defaults or Events of Default and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal of (or specified portion thereof) or interest on the notes have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture.
The indenture also provides that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes may waive any past default with respect to the notes and its consequences, except a default:

in the payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the notes, unless such default has been cured and we or the Company shall have deposited with the trustee all required payments of the principal of and premium, if any, and interest on the notes; or

in respect of a covenant or provision contained in the indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding note affected thereby.
The trustee will be required to give notice to the holders of the notes of a default under the indenture unless the default has been cured or waived within 90 days; provided, however, that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of the notes of any default with respect to the notes (except a default in the payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the notes) if the trustee considers the withholding to be in the interest of the holders.
The indenture provides that no holder of the notes may institute any proceedings, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for any remedy thereunder, except in the case of failure of the trustee, for 60 days, to act after it has received a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an Event of Default from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding notes, as well as an offer of indemnity or security reasonable satisfactory to the trustee. This provision will not prevent, however, any holder of the notes from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of and premium, if any, and interest on the notes at the respective due dates thereof.
The trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request or direction of any holders of the notes then outstanding under the indenture, unless the holders shall have offered, and, if requested, provided to the trustee security or indemnity reasonable satisfactory to the trustee. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes (or of all notes then outstanding under the indenture, as the case may be) shall have the right to direct the time, method and place
 
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of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon the trustee. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction which is in conflict with any law or the indenture, or which may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of the notes not joining therein, it being expressly understood that the trustee shall not have an affirmative duty to ascertain whether such action is prejudicial.
Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, the operating company and the Company must deliver a certificate of an officer certifying to the trustee whether or not the officer has knowledge of any default under the indenture and, if so, specifying each default and the nature and status thereof.
Defeasance
Legal defeasance
The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the notes, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the notes (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and premium, if any, and interest on, if any, the notes on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and the notes .
This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service, a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the notes will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.
Defeasance of certain covenants
The indenture provides that upon compliance with certain conditions:

we may omit to comply with certain covenants set forth in the indenture, including Sections 4.2, 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1, as well as any additional covenants specified in a supplemental indenture, and

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a default or an Event of Default with respect to the notes, or covenant defeasance.
The conditions include:

depositing with the trustee cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and premium, if any, and interest in respect of the notes on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and the notes, and

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the notes will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.
Covenant defeasance and Events of Default
In the event we exercise our option to effect covenant defeasance with respect to the notes and the notes are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of cash
 
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in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on the notes at the time of the acceleration resulting from the event of default. In such a case, we would remain liable for those payments.
Satisfaction and discharge
The indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect as to all outstanding notes when:

either:
1.
all notes that have been authenticated and delivered (other than notes that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid and notes for whose payment money has been deposited in trust and thereafter repaid) to the trustee for cancellation; or
2.
all notes that have not been delivered to the trustee for cancellation: (i) have become due and payable by reason of sending a notice of redemption or otherwise; (ii) will become due and payable at their stated maturity within one year; (iii) have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements reasonably satisfactory to the trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the trustee in our name, and at our expense; or (iv) are deemed paid and discharged as set forth under the caption “— Defeasance — Legal Defeasance”; and we, in case of (i), (ii) or (iii), have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the trustee in trust cash in U.S. dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations that, through the payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms, will provide cash sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on the notes not delivered to the trustee for cancellation for principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, the notes to the date of maturity or redemption, as the case may be, in accordance with the terms of the indenture and the notes ;

the operating company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable under the indenture by the operating company; and

the operating company has delivered to the trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in the indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture have been complied with.
Modification, waiver and meetings
Modifications and amendments of the indenture with respect to the notes will be permitted to be made only with the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of all outstanding notes ; provided, however, that no modification or amendment may, without the consent of each holder affected:

reduce the principal amount of the notes whose holders must consent to an amendment or waiver;

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on the notes;

reduce the principal of, or premium, if any, on, or change the fixed maturity of, the notes;

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the notes (except a rescission of acceleration of the notes by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding notes and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

make the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the notes payable in currency other than that stated in the notes ;

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of the notes to receive payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the notes and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments;

waive a redemption payment with respect to the notes; or

release the Company as a guarantor of the notes other than as provided in the indenture or modify the guarantee in any manner adverse to the holders of the notes .
 
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Notwithstanding the foregoing, modifications and amendments of the indenture with respect to the notes will be permitted to be made by us and the trustee without the consent of any holder of the notes for any of the following purposes:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; provided that this action shall not adversely affect the interests of holders of the notes in any material respect;

to evidence a successor to us as obligor or the Company as guarantor under the indenture with respect to the notes;

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of the holders of any notes then outstanding;

to provide for the issuance of additional notes in accordance with the limitations set forth in the indenture;

to provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under the indenture by more than one trustee;

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended;

to reflect the release of the Company, as guarantor, in accordance with the provisions of the indenture;

to secure the notes;

to add guarantors with respect to the notes; or

to conform the text of the indenture, any guarantee or the notes to any provision of this “Description of notes” and “Description of Debt Securities” in the accompanying prospectus.
In determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding notes have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver thereunder or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of holders of notes, the indenture provides that notes owned by us or the Company or any other obligor upon the notes or any affiliate of ours or the Company or any of the other obligors actually known to a responsible officer of the trustee shall be disregarded.
The indenture contains provisions for convening meetings of the holders of notes. A meeting will be permitted to be called at any time by the trustee, and also, upon request, by us or the Company or the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding notes, in any case upon notice given as provided in the indenture. Except for any consent that must be given by the holder of each note affected by certain modifications and amendments of the indenture, any resolution presented at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present will be permitted to be adopted by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes ; provided, however, that, except as referred to above, any resolution with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage, which is less than a majority, in principal amount of the outstanding notes may be adopted at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of the holders of the specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes . Any resolution passed or decision taken at any meeting of holders of notes duly held in accordance with the indenture will be binding on all holders of the notes. The quorum at any meeting called to adopt a resolution, and at any reconvened meeting, will be holders holding or representing a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes; provided, however, that if any action is to be taken at the meeting with respect to a consent or waiver which may be given by the holders of not less than a specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes, holders holding or representing the specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes will constitute a quorum.
Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, any action to be taken at a meeting of holders of the notes with respect to any action that the indenture expressly provides may be taken by the holders of a specified percentage which is less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding notes may be
 
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taken at a meeting at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of holders of the specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding notes.
Trustee
U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association (as successor in interest to U.S. Bank National Association) will initially act as the trustee, registrar and paying agent for the notes, subject to replacement at the operating company’s option as provided in the indenture.
If an Event of Default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will be required to use the degree of care and skill of a prudent person in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee will become obligated to exercise any of its powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the required percentage under the indenture of holders of the notes only after those holders have offered, and, if requested, provided the trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to it.
If the trustee becomes one of our creditors, it will be subject to limitations on its rights to obtain payment of claims or to realize on some property received for any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions with the operating company. If, however, it acquires any conflicting interest, it must eliminate that conflict or resign.
No conversion or exchange rights
The notes will not be convertible into or exchangeable for any shares of beneficial interest of the operating company or the Company.
No personal liability of trustees, officers, employees and shareholders
Except as provided in the indenture, no past, present or future trustee, officer, employee, incorporator, shareholder or member of the operating company or the Company, as such, will have any liability for any of the operating company’s obligations or those of the Company under the notes, the indenture or any guarantees or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation, it being recognized that the Company is obligated under its guarantee of the notes separate and apart from its capacity as the managing member of the operating company. Each holder of notes by accepting a note waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the notes. The waiver may not be effective to waive liabilities under the federal securities laws.
Book-entry, delivery and form
The notes will be issued in the form of one or more fully registered global securities (“Global Notes”) that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depositary Trust Company (“DTC”), and registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co. The Global Notes may be transferred, in whole and not in part, only to another nominee of DTC or to a successor of DTC or its nominee. Beneficial interests in the Global Notes may not be exchanged for definitive notes in registered certificated form (“Certificated Notes”) except in the limited circumstances described below. See “— Exchange of Global Notes for Certificated Notes.” Except in the limited circumstances described below, owners of beneficial interests in the Global Notes will not be entitled to receive physical delivery of notes in certificated form. Investors may elect to hold their interest in the Global Securities through either DTC, Clearstream or Euroclear if they are participants in these systems, or indirectly through organizations which are participants in these systems. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their participants though customers’ securities accounts in Clearstream and Euroclear’s names on the books of their respective depositaries, which in turn will hold interests in customers’ securities accounts in the depositaries’ names on the books of DTC.
Depository procedures
The following description of the operations and procedures of DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream is provided solely as a matter of convenience. These operations and procedures are solely within the control of the respective settlement system and are subject to changes by them. Neither the trustee nor the operating
 
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company takes any responsibility for these operations and procedures and each urges investors to contact the system or their participants directly to discuss these matters.
DTC has advised the operating company that DTC is a limited-purpose trust company created to hold securities for its participating organizations (collectively, the “Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of transactions in those securities between the Participants through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of its Participants. The Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations. Access to DTC’s system is also available to other entities such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Participant, either directly or indirectly (collectively, the “Indirect Participants”). Persons who are not Participants may beneficially own securities held by or on behalf of DTC only through the Participants or the Indirect Participants. The ownership interests in, and transfers of ownership interests in, each security held by or on behalf of DTC are recorded on the records of the Participants and Indirect Participants.
DTC has also advised the operating company that, pursuant to procedures established by it:
(1)
upon deposit of the Global Notes, DTC will credit the accounts of the Participants designated by the underwriters with portions of the principal amount of the Global Notes; and
(2)
ownership of these interests in the Global Notes will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership of these interests will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC (with respect to the Participants) or by the Participants and the Indirect Participants (with respect to other owners of beneficial interest in the Global Notes).
Investors in the Global Notes who are Participants may hold their interests therein directly through DTC. Investors in the Global Notes who are not Participants may hold their interests therein indirectly through organizations (including Euroclear and Clearstream) which are Participants. All interests in a Global Note, including those held through Euroclear or Clearstream, may be subject to the procedures and requirements of DTC. Those interests held through Euroclear or Clearstream may also be subject to the procedures and requirements of such systems. The laws of some states require that certain persons take physical delivery in definitive form of securities that they own. Consequently, the ability to transfer beneficial interests in a Global Note to such persons will be limited to that extent. Because DTC can act only on behalf of the Participants, which in turn act on behalf of the Indirect Participants, the ability of a person having beneficial interests in a Global Note to pledge such interests to persons that do not participate in the DTC system, or otherwise take actions in respect of such interests, may be affected by the lack of a physical certificate evidencing such interests.
Except as described below, owners of interests in the Global Notes will not have notes registered in their names, will not receive physical delivery of notes in certificated form and will not be considered the registered owners or “holders” thereof under the indenture governing the notes for any purpose.
Payments in respect of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, a Global Note registered in the name of DTC or its nominee will be payable to DTC in its capacity as the registered holder under the indenture governing the notes. Under the terms of the indenture, the operating company, the Company and the trustee will treat the persons in whose names the notes, including the Global Notes, are registered as the owners of the notes for the purpose of receiving payments and for all other purposes.
Consequently, neither the operating company, the Company, the trustee nor any agent of them or the trustee has or will have any responsibility or liability for:
(1)
any aspect of DTC’s records or any Participant’s or Indirect Participant’s records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interest in the Global Notes or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any of DTC’s records or any Participant’s or Indirect Participant’s records relating to the beneficial ownership interests in the Global Notes; or
(2)
any other matter relating to the actions and practices of DTC or any of its Participants or Indirect Participants.
 
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DTC has advised the operating company that its current practice, upon receipt of any payment in respect of securities such as the notes (including principal and interest), is to credit the accounts of the relevant Participants with the payment on the payment date unless DTC has reason to believe that it will not receive payment on such payment date. Each relevant Participant is credited with an amount proportionate to its beneficial ownership of an interest in the principal amount of the relevant security as shown on the records of DTC. Payments by the Participants and the Indirect Participants to the beneficial owners of notes will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices and will be the responsibility of the Participants or the Indirect Participants and will not be the responsibility of DTC, the trustee or us. Neither we nor the trustee will be liable for any delay by DTC or any of the Participants or the Indirect Participants in identifying the beneficial owners of the notes, and we and the trustee may conclusively rely on and will be protected in relying on instructions from DTC or its nominee for all purposes.
DTC has advised the operating company that it will take any action permitted to be taken by a holder of notes only at the direction of one or more Participants to whose account DTC has credited the interests in the notes and only in respect of such portion of the aggregate principal amount at maturity of the notes as to which such Participant or Participants has or have given such direction. However, if there is an Event of Default under the notes, DTC reserves the right to exchange the notes for legended notes in certificated form, and to distribute such notes to its Participants.
Exchange of Global Notes for Certificated Notes
A Global Note is exchangeable for Certificated Notes if:
(1)
DTC (a) notifies the operating company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as depositary for the Global Notes or (b) has ceased to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and, in either case, we fail to appoint a successor depositary within 90 days of such notice;
(2)
the operating company, at its option, notifies the trustee in writing that the operating company elects to cause the issuance of the Certificated Notes; or
(3)
upon request from DTC if there has occurred and is continuing a default or Event of Default with respect to the notes.
In addition, beneficial interests in a Global Note may be exchanged for Certificated Notes upon prior written notice given to the trustee by or on behalf of DTC in accordance with the indenture. In all cases, Certificated Notes delivered in exchange for any Global Note or beneficial interests in Global Notes will be registered in the names, and issued in any approved denominations, requested by or on behalf of the depositary (in accordance with its customary procedures).
Same Day Settlement and Payment
The underwriters will settle the notes in immediately available funds. In accordance with the indenture, the operating company will make payments in respect of the notes represented by the Global Notes (including principal, premium, if any, and interest) by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by DTC or its nominee. In accordance with the indenture, the operating company will make all payments of principal, interest and premium, if any, with respect to Certificated Notes by wire transfer of immediately available funds to the accounts specified by the holders of the Certificated Notes or, if no such account is specified, by mailing a check to each such holder’s registered address or against presentation and surrender at maturity or earlier redemption. The notes represented by the Global Notes are expected to trade in DTC’s Same-Day Funds Settlement System, and any permitted secondary market trading activity in such notes will, therefore, be required by DTC to be settled in immediately available funds. The operating company expects that secondary trading in any Certificated Notes will also be settled in immediately available funds.
Because of time zone differences, the securities account of a Euroclear or Clearstream participant purchasing an interest in a Global Note from a Participant will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream participant, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear and Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. DTC has advised the operating company that cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of
 
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sales of interests in a Global Note by or through a Euroclear or Clearstream participant to a Participant will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.
Notices
Except as otherwise provided in the indenture, notices to holders of the notes will be given by mail to the addresses of holders of the notes as they appear in the note register or electronically pursuant to the Depository’s procedures; provided that notices given to holders holding notes in book-entry form may be given through the facilities of DTC or any successor depository.
Governing law
The indenture, the notes and the guarantee will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.
Definitions
As used in the indenture, the following terms have the respective meanings specified below:
“Debt” means, without duplication, with respect to any person, any indebtedness of such person in respect of:

borrowed money or evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments;

indebtedness secured by any Lien on any property or asset owned by such person, but only to the extent of the lesser of (a) the amount of indebtedness so secured and (b) the fair market value (determined in good faith by the board of directors of such person or, in the case of the operating company and a subsidiary, by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof) of the property subject to such Lien;

reimbursement obligations, contingent or otherwise, in connection with any letters of credit actually issued or amounts representing the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property except any such balance that constitutes (i) an accrued expense, (ii) trade accounts payable in the ordinary course of business and (iii) any deferred purchase price until such obligation becomes a liability on the balance sheet of such person in accordance with GAAP);

any lease of property by such person as lessee which is required to be reflected on such person’s balance sheet as a finance lease in accordance with GAAP; provided, however, that in the case of this clause, Debt excludes operating lease liabilities on a person’s balance sheet in accordance with GAAP;

net obligations of such person under any Swap Contract;

all obligations of such person to purchase, redeem, retire, defease or otherwise make any payment in respect of any equity interest in such person or any other person, valued, in the case of a redeemable preferred interest, at the greater of its voluntary or involuntary liquidation preference plus accrued and unpaid dividends; or

the monetary obligation of a person under (a) a so-called synthetic, off-balance sheet or tax retention lease, or (b) an agreement for the use or possession of property creating obligations that do not appear on the balance sheet of such person but which, upon the insolvency or bankruptcy of such person, would be characterized as the indebtedness of such person (without regard to accounting treatment).
Debt also includes, to the extent not otherwise included, any non-contingent obligation of such person to be liable for, or to pay, as obligor, guarantor or otherwise (other than for purposes of collection in the ordinary course of business), Debt of the types referred to above of another person (it being understood that Debt shall be deemed to be incurred by such person whenever such person shall create, assume, guarantee (on a non-contingent basis) or otherwise become liable in respect thereof). Notwithstanding the foregoing,
 
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with respect to the operating company, the Company or any Subsidiary, the term “Debt” shall not include (1) Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantees of the Company, the operating company or any Subsidiary until such time as they become primary obligations of, and payments are due and required to be made thereunder by, the Company, the operating company or any Subsidiary, (2) any such indebtedness (or obligations referenced in the sentence immediately above) that has been the subject of an “in substance” defeasance in accordance with GAAP; and (3) Intercompany Indebtedness that is subordinate in right of payment to the notes (or an obligation to be liable for, or to pay, Intercompany Indebtedness that is subordinate in right of payment to the notes).
“GAAP” means United States generally accepted accounting principles.
“Intercompany Indebtedness” means Debt to which the only parties are any of the operating company, the Company or any of their respective Subsidiaries; provided, however, that with respect to any such Debt of which the operating company or the Company is the borrower, such Debt is subordinate in right of payment to the notes.
“Lien” means any mortgage, deed of trust, lien, charge, pledge, security interest, security agreement or other encumbrance of any kind.
“Non-Recourse Debt” means Debt of a Subsidiary of the Company or the operating company (or an entity in which the operating company is the general partner or managing member) that is directly or indirectly secured by real estate assets or other real estate-related assets (including equity interests) of a Subsidiary of the Company or the operating company (or entity in which the operating company is the general partner or managing member) that is the borrower and is non-recourse to the Company or the operating company or any Subsidiary of the Company or the operating company (other than pursuant to a Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantee and other than with respect to the Subsidiary of the operating company (or entity in which the operating company is the general partner or managing member) that is the borrower); provided, further, that, if any such Debt is partially recourse to the Company or the operating company or any Subsidiary of the Company or the operating company (other than pursuant to a Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantee and other than with respect to the Subsidiary of the Company or the operating company (or entity in which the operating company is the general partner or managing member) that is the borrower) and therefore does not meet the criteria set forth above, only the portion of such Debt that does meet the criteria set forth above shall constitute “Non-Recourse Debt”; provided further, that, recourse to the Company or the operating company or any Subsidiary of the Company or the operating company for any such Debt for fraud, misrepresentation, misapplication of cash, waste, bankruptcy, unpermitted transfers, environmental claims and liabilities and other circumstances customarily excluded by institutional lenders from exculpation provisions and/or included in separate indemnification agreements or carve-out guarantees in non-recourse financing of real estate, including any customary carve-outs included in ground leases, shall not, by itself, prevent such Debt from being characterized as Non-Recourse Debt.
“Permitted Non-Recourse Guarantees” means customary completion or budget guarantees or indemnities (including by means of separate indemnification agreements and carve-out guarantees) provided under Non-Recourse Debt in the ordinary course of business by the Company or the operating company or any Subsidiary of the Company or the operating company in financing transactions that are directly or indirectly secured by real estate assets or other real estate-related assets (including equity interests) of a Subsidiary of the Company or the operating company (or entity in which the operating company is the general partner or managing member), in each case that is the borrower in such financing, but is non-recourse to the Company or the operating company or any of the Company’s or the operating company’s other Subsidiaries, except for customary completion or budget guarantees or indemnities (including by means of separate indemnification agreements or carve-out guarantees) as are consistent with customary industry practice (such as fraud, misrepresentation, misapplication of cash, waste, bankruptcy, unpermitted transfers, environmental claims and liabilities and other circumstances customarily excluded by institutional lenders from exculpation provisions and/or separate indemnification agreements or carve-out guarantees in non-recourse financing of real estate, including any customary carve-outs included in ground leases).
“Pro Rata Share” means, with respect to (i) any Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of the Company, 100%, and (ii) with respect to any other Subsidiary of the Company, the percentage interest held by the Company,
 
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directly or indirectly, in such joint venture determined by calculating the percentage of the equity interests of such joint venture owned by the Company and/or one or more of its Subsidiaries.
“Significant Subsidiary” means, on any date of determination, each Subsidiary or group of Subsidiaries of the Company whose total assets as of the last day of the then most recently ended fiscal quarter were equal to or greater than 5% of the Total Asset Value at such time (it being understood that all such calculations shall be determined in the aggregate for all Subsidiaries of the Company subject to any of the events specified in the fourth or sixth bullets of the first paragraph under the caption “— Events of Default” hereof).
“Subsidiary” means, with respect to the operating company or the Company, any person (as defined in the indenture but excluding an individual), a majority of the outstanding voting stock, partnership interests, membership interests or other equity interests, as the case may be, of which is owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the operating company or the Company, as the case may be, or by one or more other Subsidiaries of the operating company or the Company, as the case may be. For the purposes of this definition, “voting stock, partnership interests, membership interests or other equity interests” means stock or interests having voting power for the election of directors, trustees or managers, as the case may be, whether at all times or only so long as no senior class of stock or interests has such voting power by reason of any contingency.
“Swap Contract” means (a) any and all rate swap transactions, basis swaps, credit derivative transactions, forward rate transactions, commodity swaps, commodity options, forward commodity contracts, equity or equity index swaps or options, bond or bond price or bond index swaps or options or forward bond or forward bond price or forward bond index transactions, interest rate options, forward foreign exchange transactions, cap transactions, floor transactions, collar transactions, currency swap transactions, cross-currency rate swap transactions, currency options, spot contracts, or any other similar transactions or any combination of any of the foregoing (including any options to enter into any of the foregoing), whether or not any such transaction is governed by or subject to any master agreement, and (b) any and all transactions of any kind, and the related confirmations, which are subject to the terms and conditions of, or governed by, any form of master agreement published by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc., any International Foreign Exchange Master Agreement, or any other master agreement (any such master agreement, together with any related schedules, a “Master Agreement”), including any such obligations or liabilities under any Master Agreement.
“Total Assets” means, as of any date, the sum of, without duplication:

Undepreciated Real Estate Assets; and

all other assets (excluding non-lease intangibles and accounts receivable other than straight-line receivables and lease receivables) of us and our Subsidiaries,
all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP to reflect impairment charges and write-downs.
“Total Asset Value” means, as of any date, the Pro Rata Share of the following:

the aggregate amount of cash and cash equivalents (as defined in accordance with GAAP) owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries; plus

an amount equal to the aggregate undepreciated book value of all other assets owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries, as adjusted in accordance with GAAP to reflect impairment charges, write-downs and losses, owned on such date.
“Total Unencumbered Assets” means, as of any date, the sum of, without duplication:

those Undepreciated Real Estate Assets which are not subject to a Lien securing Debt; and

all other assets (excluding non-lease intangibles and accounts receivable other than straight-line receivables and lease receivables) of us and our Subsidiaries not subject to a Lien securing Debt,
all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP to reflect impairment charges and write-downs; provided, however, that, in determining Total Unencumbered Assets as a percentage of outstanding Unsecured Debt for purposes of the covenant set forth above in “Certain Covenants — Maintenance of
 
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Total Unencumbered Assets,” all investments in unconsolidated limited partnerships, unconsolidated limited liability companies and other unconsolidated entities, shall be excluded from Total Unencumbered Assets.
“Undepreciated Real Estate Assets” means, as of any date, the cost (original cost plus capital improvements) of real estate assets, right-of-use assets associated with leases of property required to be reflected as finance leases on the balance sheet of the operating company and its Subsidiaries in accordance with GAAP and related intangibles of the operating company and its Subsidiaries on such date, before depreciation and amortization, all determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP; provided, however, that “Undepreciated Real Estate Assets” shall not include right-of-use assets associated with leases of property required to be reflected as operating leases on the balance sheet of the operating company and its Subsidiaries in accordance with GAAP.
“Unsecured Debt” means Debt of the operating company or any of its Subsidiaries which is not secured by a Lien on any property or assets of the operating company or any of its Subsidiaries.
“U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.
“Wholly-Owned Subsidiary” means, with respect to the operating company or the Company, any person (as defined in the indenture but excluding an individual), 100% of the outstanding shares of stock or other equity interests of which are owned and controlled, directly or indirectly, by the operating company or the Company, as the case may be, or by one or more other Subsidiaries of the operating company or the Company, as the case may be.
 
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UNDERWRITING (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)
J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, BofA Securities, Inc., Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and Truist Securities, Inc. are acting as the representatives of each of the underwriters named below. Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in an underwriting agreement among us and the underwriters, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each of the underwriters has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the principal amount of notes set forth opposite its name below.
Underwriter
Principal
Amount of
Notes
J.P. Morgan Securities LLC
$ 48,000,000
BofA Securities, Inc.
39,000,000
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
39,000,000
Truist Securities, Inc.
39,000,000
Mizuho Securities USA LLC
24,000,000
Barclays Capital Inc.
18,000,000
SMBC Nikko Securities America, Inc. 
18,000,000
Morgan Stanley & Co LLC
16,500,000
RBC Capital Markets, LLC
15,375,000
Raymond James & Associates, Inc.
15,000,000
Capital One Securities, Inc. 
12,000,000
BNP Paribas Securities Corp.
6,000,000
B. Riley Securities, Inc.
6,000,000
Citizens JMP Securities, LLC
4,125,000
Total
$ 300,000,000
Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement, the underwriters have agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase all of the notes sold under the underwriting agreement if any of these notes are purchased. If an underwriter defaults, the underwriting agreement provides that the purchase commitments of the nondefaulting underwriters may be increased or the underwriting agreement may be terminated.
The operating company and the Company have agreed, jointly and severally, to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.
The underwriters are offering the notes, subject to prior sale, when, as and if issued to and accepted by them, subject to approval of legal matters by their counsel, and satisfaction of other conditions contained in the underwriting agreement, such as the receipt by the underwriters of officers’ certificates and legal opinions. The underwriters reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part. Sales of notes made outside of the United States may be made by affiliates of the underwriters.
Commissions and Discounts
The representatives have advised us that the underwriters propose initially to offer the notes to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement and may offer notes to dealers at that price less a concession not in excess of 0.40% of the principal amount of the notes. The underwriters may allow, and the dealers may reallow, a discount not in excess of 0.25% of the principal amount of the notes to other dealers. After the initial public offering, the public offering price, concession and discount may be changed.
 
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The following table shows the underwriting discount payable by us.
Underwriting
Discount
Total
Per note
0.650% $ 1,950,000
The expenses of the offering, not including the underwriting discount, are estimated at $850,000 and are payable by us.
New Issue of Notes
The notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We do not intend to apply for listing of the notes on any securities exchange or for inclusion of the notes on any automated quotation system. We have been advised by the underwriters that they presently intend to make a market in the notes after completion of the offering. However, they are under no obligation to do so and may discontinue any market-making activities at any time without any notice.
We cannot assure you that an active trading market for the notes will develop or be maintained as to the liquidity of any trading market that may develop. If an active trading market for the notes does not develop or is not maintained, the market price and liquidity the notes may be adversely affected.
Price Stabilization, Short Positions
In connection with this offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell the notes in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, purchases on the open market to cover positions created by short sales and stabilizing transactions. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriters of a greater principal amount of the notes than they are required to purchase in this offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of various bids for or purchases of the notes made by the underwriters in the open market prior to the completion of this offering.
Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriters’ purchases to cover the syndicate short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of the notes or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the notes. As a result, the price of the notes may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. The underwriters may conduct these transactions in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.
Neither we nor any of the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of the notes. In addition, neither we nor any of the underwriters make any representation that the representatives will engage in these transactions or that these transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.
Electronic Distribution
In connection with this offering, certain of the underwriters or securities dealers may distribute this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by electronic means, such as e-mail.
Conflicts of Interest
Certain of the underwriters or their affiliates are lenders under the 2021 Revolver and will receive their pro rata portions of any amounts repaid under the 2021 Revolver. Certain of the underwriters or their affiliates may receive more than 5% of the net offering proceeds from this offering. In the event that greater than 5% of the net proceeds from this offering are used to repay indebtedness owed to any individual underwriter or its affiliates, this offering will be conducted in accordance with FINRA Rule 5121. In such event, such underwriter or underwriters will not confirm sales of the notes to accounts over which they exercise discretionary authority without the prior written approval of the customer. However, the appointment of a “qualified independent underwriter” would not be required under FINRA Rule 5121 because the Notes are “investment grade rated” ​(as defined in FINRA Rule 5121).
 
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Other Relationships
Some of the underwriters and their affiliates have engaged in, and may in the future engage in, investment banking and other commercial dealings in the ordinary course of business with us or our affiliates. They have received, or may in the future receive, customary fees and commissions for these transactions.
In addition, in the ordinary course of their business activities, the underwriters and their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. If any of the underwriters or their affiliates has a lending relationship with us, certain of these underwriters or their affiliates routinely hedge, and certain other of these underwriters or their affiliates may hedge, their credit exposure to us consistent with their customary risk management policies. Typically, such underwriters and their affiliates would hedge exposure by entering into transactions which consist of either the purchase of credit default swaps or the creation of short position in our securities, including potentially the notes offered hereby. Any such credit default swaps or short positions could adversely affect future trading prices the notes. The underwriters and their affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.
Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Australia
No placement document, prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document (including as defined in the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (“Corporations Act”)) has been or will be lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (“ASIC”) or any other governmental agency, in relation to the offering. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document for the purposes of Corporations Act, and does not purport to include the information required for a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act. No action has been taken which would permit an offering of the notes in circumstances that would require disclosure under Parts 6D.2 or 7.9 of the Corporations Act.
The notes may not be offered for sale, nor may application for the sale or purchase or any notes be invited in Australia (including an offer or invitation which is received by a person in Australia) and neither this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus nor any other offering material or advertisement relating to the notes may be distributed or published in Australia unless, in each case:
(a)
the aggregate consideration payable on acceptance of the offer or invitation by each offeree or invitee is at least A$500,000 (or its equivalent in another currency, in either case, disregarding moneys lent by the person offering the Notes or making the invitation or its associates) or the offer or invitation otherwise does not require disclosure to investors in accordance with Part 6D.2 or 7.9 of the Corporations Act;
 
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(b)
the offer, invitation or distribution complied with the conditions of the Australian financial services license of the person making the offer, invitation or distribution or an applicable exemption from the requirement to hold such license;
(c)
the offer, invitation or distribution complies with all applicable Australian laws, regulations and directives (including, without limitation, the licensing requirements set out in Chapter 7 of the Corporations Act);
(d)
the offer or invitation does not constitute an offer or invitation to a person in Australia who is a “retail client” as defined for the purposes of Section 761G of the Corporations Act; and
such action does not require any document to be lodged with ASIC or the ASX.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada
The notes may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the notes must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.
Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.
Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.
Notice to Prospective Investors in the Dubai International Financial Centre
The notes may not be or sold to any person in the Dubai International Financial Centre unless such offer is:
(a)
an “Exempt Offer” in accordance with the Markets Rules (MKT) Module of the Dubai Financial Services Authority (the “DFSA”) rulebook; and;
(b)
made only to persons who meet the Professional Client criteria set out in Rule 2.3.3 of the Conduct of Business (COB) Module of the DFSA rulebook.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong
The contents of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus have not been reviewed or approved by any regulatory authority in Hong Kong. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer or invitation to the public in Hong Kong to acquire the notes. Accordingly, (1) no person has offered or sold or will offer or sell in Hong Kong, by means of any document, any notes other than (i) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (the “SFO”) and any rules made under the SFO; or (ii) in other circumstances which do not result in this prospectus supplement and/or the accompanying prospectus being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (the “C(WUMP)O”), or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the C(WUMP)O; and (2) no person has issued or had in its possession for the purposes of issue, or will issue or have in its possession for the purposes of issue, whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere, any advertisement, invitation or document relating to the notes, which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted to do
 
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so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to notes which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the SFO and any rules made under the SFO. You are advised to exercise caution in relation to the offer. If you are in any doubt about the contents of this prospectus supplement and/or the accompanying prospectus, you should obtain independent professional advice.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Japan
The notes have not been and will not be registered pursuant to Article 4, Paragraph 1 of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act (Act No. 25 of 1948, as amended, the “FIEA”) on the ground that the solicitation for subscription of the notes falls within the definition of “solicitation to qualified institutional investors” as defined in Article 2, paragraph 3, item 2 (I) of the FIEA. Such solicitation shall be subject to the condition that qualified institutional investors (as defined under the FIEA, “QIIs”) who desire to acquire the notes shall be made aware that they shall not transfer the notes to anyone other than other QIIs. Accordingly, none of the notes nor any interest therein may be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the account or benefit of, any “resident” of Japan (which term as used herein means any person resident in Japan, including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan), or to others for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the account or benefit of any resident of Japan, except the private placement above pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of, and otherwise in compliance with, the FIEA and any other applicable laws, regulations and ministerial guidelines of Japan in effect at the relevant time.
Notice to Prospective Investors in Singapore
Neither this prospectus supplement nor the accompanying prospectus has been registered as a prospectus under the Securities and Futures Act 2001 (“SFA”) by the Monetary Authority of Singapore, and the offer of the notes in Singapore is made primarily pursuant to the exemptions under Sections 274 and 275 of the SFA. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the notes may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the notes be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor as defined in Section 4A of the SFA (an “Institutional Investor”) pursuant to Section 274 of the SFA, (ii) an accredited investor as defined in Section 4A of the SFA (an “Accredited Investor”) or other relevant person as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA (a “Relevant Person”) and pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or to any person pursuant to an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA and (where applicable) Regulation 3 of the Securities and Futures (Classes of Investors) Regulations 2018, or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with, the conditions of any other applicable exemption or provision of the SFA.
It is a condition of the offer that where the notes are subscribed for or acquired pursuant to an offer made in reliance on Section 275 of the SFA by a Relevant Person which is: (a) a corporation (which is not an Accredited Investor), the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an Accredited Investor; or (b) a trust (where the trustee is not an Accredited Investor), the sole purpose of which is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an Accredited Investor, securities or securities-based derivatives contracts (each as defined in Section 2(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within 6 months after that corporation or that trust has subscribed for or acquired the notes except: (1) to an Institutional Investor, Accredited Investor, or other Relevant Person, or which arises from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) of the SFA (in the case of that corporation) or Section 276(4)(c)(ii) of the SFA (in the case of that trust); (2) where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer; (3) where the transfer is by operation of law; (4) as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA; or (5) as specified in Regulation 37A of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Securities and Securities-based Derivatives Contracts) Regulations 2018.
Singapore Securities and Futures Act Product Classification — Solely for the purposes of its obligations pursuant to Sections 309B(1)(a) and 309B(1)(c) of the SFA, our operating company has determined, and
 
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hereby notifies all relevant persons (as defined in Section 309A of the SFA) that the notes are “prescribed capital markets products” ​(as defined in the Securities and Futures (Capital Markets Products) Regulations 2018) and “Excluded Investment Products” ​(as defined in MAS Notice SFA 04-N12: Notice on the Sale of Investment Products and MAS Notice FAA-N16: Notice on Recommendations on Investment Products).
Notice to Prospective Investors in the European Economic Area
None of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any related free writing prospectus is a prospectus for the purposes of Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 (as amended, the “Prospectus Regulation”). This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus have been prepared on the basis that any offer of notes in any Member State of the European Economic Area (the “EEA”) will only be made to a legal entity, which is a qualified investor under the Prospectus Regulation (“EEA Qualified Investors”). Accordingly any person making or intending to make an offer in any Member State of the EEA of notes which are the subject of the offering contemplated in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus may only do so with respect to EEA Qualified Investors. Neither the operating company nor the underwriters have authorized, nor do they authorize, the making of any offer of notes in the EEA other than to EEA Qualified Investors.
PROHIBITION OF SALES TO EEA RETAIL INVESTORS — The notes are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the EEA. For these purposes, (1) a “retail investor” means a person who is one or more of: (i) a retail client as defined in point (11) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU (as amended, “MiFID II”); or (ii) a customer within the meaning of Directive (EU) 2016/97 (as amended, the “Insurance Distribution Directive”), where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (10) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II; or (iii) not a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Regulation; and (2) the expression “offer” includes the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for the notes. Consequently, no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014 (as amended, the “PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the EEA has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the EEA may be unlawful under the PRIIPs Regulation.
Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom
None of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any related free writing prospectus is a prospectus for the purposes of Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 as it forms part of domestic law in the United Kingdom by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, as amended (the “EUWA”) (the “UK Prospectus Regulation”). This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus have been prepared on the basis that any offer of notes in the United Kingdom will only be made to a legal entity which is a qualified investor under the UK Prospectus Regulation (“UK Qualified Investors”). Accordingly any person making or intending to make an offer in the United Kingdom of notes which are the subject of the offering contemplated in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus may only do so with respect to UK Qualified Investors. Neither the operating company nor the underwriters have authorized, nor do they authorize, the making of any offer of notes in the United Kingdom other than to UK Qualified Investors.
PROHIBITION OF SALES TO UNITED KINGDOM RETAIL INVESTORS — The notes are not intended to be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the United Kingdom. For these purposes, (1) a “retail investor” means a person who is one (or more) of: (i) a retail client, as defined in point (8) of Article 2 of Regulation (EU) No 2017/565 as it forms part of domestic law in the United Kingdom by virtue of the EUWA; or (ii) a customer within the meaning of the provisions of the United Kingdom’s Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, as amended (the “FSMA’’) and any rules or regulations made under the FSMA to implement Directive (EU) 2016/97, where that customer would not qualify as a professional client, as defined in point (8) of Article 2(1) of Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 as it forms part of domestic law in the United Kingdom by virtue of the EUWA; or (iii) not a qualified investor as defined in Article 2 of the UK Prospectus
 
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Regulation; and (2) the expression “offer” includes the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for the notes. Consequently, no key information document required by Regulation (EU) No 1286/2014 as it forms part of domestic law in the United Kingdom by virtue of the EUWA (the “UK PRIIPs Regulation”) for offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the United Kingdom has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the United Kingdom may be unlawful under the UK PRIIPs Regulation.
The communication of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any related free writing prospectus and any other document or materials relating to the issue of the notes offered hereby is not being made, and such documents and/or materials have not been approved, by an authorized person for the purposes of section 21 of the FSMA. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any related free writing prospectus and such other documents and/or materials are not being distributed to, and must not be passed on to, the general public in the United Kingdom. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any related free writing prospectus and such other documents and/or materials are for distribution only to persons who (i) have professional experience in matters relating to investments and who fall within the definition of investment professionals (as defined in Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the “Financial Promotion Order”)), (ii) fall within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Financial Promotion Order, (iii) are outside the United Kingdom, or (iv) are other persons to whom it may otherwise lawfully be made under the Financial Promotion Order (all such persons together being referred to as “relevant persons”). This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any related free writing prospectus and such other documents and/ or materials are directed only at relevant persons and must not be acted on or relied on by persons who are not relevant persons. Any investment or investment activity to which this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any related free writing prospectus and any other document or materials relates will be engaged in only with, relevant persons. Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any related free writing prospectus or any other documents and/or materials relating to the issue of the notes offered hereby or any of their contents.
Other Regulatory Restrictions in the United Kingdom
Any invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of the FSMA) in connection with the issue or sale of the notes may only be communicated or caused to be communicated in circumstances in which Section 21(1) of the FSMA does not apply to the operating company or Safehold Inc.
All applicable provisions of the FSMA must be complied with in respect to anything done by any person in relation to the notes in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC in connection with, among other offerings of securities, the offering of notes pursuant to this prospectus supplement. In addition, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, and proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Our reference to the SEC’s website is intended to be an inactive textual reference only.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. If a reference is made in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to any of our contracts or other documents filed or incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the filed copy of the contract or document.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus supplement certain information we file with the SEC prior to the termination of the this offering pursuant to this prospectus supplement, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. Information incorporated by reference is part of this prospectus supplement. Later information filed with the SEC prior to the termination of this offering will update and supersede this information.
This prospectus supplement incorporates by reference the documents listed below, all of which have been previously filed with the SEC:


Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 16, 2024 (other than the information furnished pursuant to Item 7.01 and Exhibit 99.1) and February 12, 2024 (Film No. 24620226).


The description of our Common Stock contained in Exhibit 4.1 of our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 4, 2023.
We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act from the date of this prospectus supplement until we have sold all of the securities to which this prospectus supplement relates or this offering is otherwise terminated. Information that is “furnished” to the SEC shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is part.
You may obtain copies of any of these filings by contacting us as described below, or through contacting the SEC or accessing its website as described above. Documents incorporated by reference are available without charge, excluding all exhibits unless an exhibit has been specifically incorporated by reference into those documents, by requesting them in writing, by telephone or via the internet at:
Safehold Inc.
1114 Avenue of the Americas, 39th Floor
New York, New York 10036
Attention: Investor Relations Department
(212) 930-9400
Website: http://www.safeholdinc.com
The information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal and tax matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, Los Angeles, California. Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, will pass upon certain matters under Maryland law. Sidley Austin LLP, New York, New York, will act as counsel to the underwriters.
EXPERTS
The financial statements of Safehold Inc. incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, and the effectiveness of Safehold Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting, have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports. Such financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of such firm, given their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
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PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_safehold-bwlr.jpg]
Safehold Inc.
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Depositary Shares
Warrants
Rights
Units
Guarantees of Debt Securities
Safehold GL Holdings LLC
Debt Securities
Safehold Inc. may offer common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, warrants or debt securities from time to time in one or more offerings. Safehold GL Holdings LLC may offer from time to time debt securities in one or more series, which will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Safehold Inc. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities. In addition, our selling securityholders may from time to time offer shares of our common stock on terms to be determined at the time of the offering.
Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities to be offered, which may include limitations on actual or constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer of the securities, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve the status of Safehold Inc. as a real estate investment trust, or REIT. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.
We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. We will provide specific information about any selling securityholders in one or more supplements to this prospectus. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, under the symbol “SAFE.” On April 3, 2023, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE was $28.60 per share.
INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS, ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND UNDER SIMILAR HEADINGS IN OTHER DOCUMENTS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE MAKING A DECISION TO INVEST IN OUR SECURITIES.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is April 4, 2023.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings and the selling securityholders to be named in a supplement to this prospectus may, from time to time, sell shares of common stock in one or more offerings as described in this prospectus. Each time that we or the selling securityholders offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”
Neither we nor any selling securityholder has authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. Neither we nor any selling securityholder will make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.
Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to: (i) the “Company,” “Safehold Inc.,” “we,” “us,” “our” or “our company” mean Safehold Inc., a Maryland corporation formerly known as iStar Inc., together with our consolidated subsidiaries, including Safehold GL Holdings LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, of which we are the managing member and to which we refer in this prospectus as our “operating company,” ​(ii) “iStar” mean iStar Inc., a Maryland corporation, prior to its merger with Old Safehold (as defined below) and (iii) “Old Safehold” mean Safehold Inc., a Maryland corporation, prior to its merger with and into iStar Inc. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable class or series of securities.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
Available Information
We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.
Our website address is www.safeholdinc.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.
This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC as provided above, or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.
Incorporation by Reference
The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 22, 2023 (other than the audited financial statements of Old Safehold for the years ended December 31, 2022, December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the related notes and the report of the independent registered public accounting firm thereto incorporated by reference in Item 15 (a) and (c) and the information included in Exhibit 99.1, which are included in Old Safehold’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 15, 2023, as amended by its Annual Report on Form 10-K/A filed with the SEC on March 30, 2023, which is separately incorporated by reference herein), as amended by our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A filed with the SEC on March 30, 2023.


Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 2, 2023 (other than the information furnished pursuant to Item 7.01), March 9, 2023 and April 4, 2023 (other than the audited financial statements of Old Safehold for the years ended December 31, 2022, December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the related notes and the report of the independent registered public accounting firm thereto included in Item 9.01 (a) and Exhibit 99.7, which are included in Old Safehold’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 15, 2023, as amended by its Annual Report on Form 10-K/A filed with the SEC on March 30, 2023, which is separately incorporated by reference herein).

Old Safehold’s Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 9, 2023, February 14, 2023, March 2, 2023, March 9, 2023 and March 31, 2023.
 
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All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC (including our Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K), will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.
You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:
Safehold Inc.
1114 Avenue of the Americas, 39th Floor
New York, New York 10036
Attention: Investor Relations Department
(212) 930-9400
Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
 
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THE COMPANY
We are a publicly-traded company that operates our business through one reportable segment by acquiring, managing and capitalizing ground leases. We believe that our business has characteristics comparable to a high-grade, fixed income investment business, but with certain unique advantages. Relative to alternative fixed income investments generally, our ground leases typically benefit from built-in growth derived from contractual base rent increases (either at a specified percentage or consumer price index based, or both), and the opportunity to realize value from residual rights to take ownership of the buildings and other improvements on our land at no additional cost to us. We believe that these features offer us the opportunity to realize superior risk-adjusted total returns when compared to certain alternative highly-rated investments.
Ground leases generally represent the ownership of land underlying commercial real estate projects that is net leased on a long-term basis (base terms are typically 30 to 99 years, often with tenant renewal options) by the fee owner of the land (landlord) to the owners/operators of the real estate projects built thereon (“Ground Lease”), or what we refer to as a SafeholdTM. The property is generally leased on a triple net basis with the tenant generally responsible for taxes, maintenance and insurance as well as all operating costs and capital expenditures. Ground Leases typically provide that at the end of the lease term or upon tenant default and the termination of the Ground Lease upon such default, the land, building and all improvements revert to the landlord. We have become the industry leader in Ground Leases by demonstrating the value of the product to real estate investors, owners, operators and developers and expanding their use throughout major metropolitan areas.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SAFE.” We elected to be treated as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, commencing with the tax year ended December 31, 1998. We conduct all of our business and own all of our properties through our subsidiary operating company, Safehold GL Holdings LLC.
Our principal executive offices are located at 1114 Avenue of the Americas, 39th Floor, New York, New York 10036, and our telephone number is (212) 930-9400. Our website is www.safeholdinc.com. Information contained in or that can be accessed through our website is not part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. The foregoing information about us is only a general summary and is not intended to be comprehensive. For additional information about us, you should refer to the information under “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference in Exhibit 99.3 to our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 4, 2023, any subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.
 
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GUARANTOR DISCLOSURES
Safehold Inc. may guarantee debt securities of the operating company as described in “Description of Debt Securities.” Any such guarantees by Safehold Inc. will be full, irrevocable, unconditional and absolute joint and several guarantees to the holders of each series of such outstanding guaranteed debt securities. The Company owns all of its assets and conducts all of its operations through the operating company and the operating company is consolidated into Safehold Inc.’s financial statements.
The Company and the operating company have filed this prospectus with the SEC registering, among other securities, debt securities of the operating company, which will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. Pursuant to Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X, subsidiary issuers of obligations guaranteed by the parent are not required to provide separate financial statements, provided that the subsidiary obligor is consolidated into the parent company’s consolidated financial statements, the parent guarantee is “full and unconditional” and, subject to certain exceptions as set forth below, the alternative disclosure required by Rule 13-01 is provided, which includes narrative disclosure and summarized financial information. Accordingly, separate consolidated financial statements of the operating company have not been presented.
Furthermore, as permitted under Rule 13-01(a)(4)(vi) of Regulation S-X, we have excluded the summarized financial information for the operating company because the assets, liabilities and results of operations of the operating company are not materially different than the corresponding amounts in Safehold Inc.’s consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference herein, and management believes such summarized financial information would be repetitive and would not provide incremental value to investors.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless we indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to contribute the net proceeds from any sale of offered securities by us to our operating company. Our operating company will use the net proceeds from us or from any sale of offered securities by it as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of common stock being offered by any selling securityholders.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
This prospectus describes the general terms of the common stock, $0.01 par value per share (the “common stock”), and preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share (the “preferred stock”), Safehold Inc. may offer. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law (as amended from time to time, the “MGCL”), our amended and restated charter (“charter”) and our second amended and restated bylaws (“bylaws”). As used in this “Description of Capital Stock,” references to “our company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer solely to Safehold Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.
Common Stock
When we offer to sell a particular class or series of common stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of common stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
General
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 400,000,000 shares of common stock. Our charter authorizes our board of directors (our “board of directors”), with the approval of a majority of the entire board of directors and without any action by our stockholders, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of any class or series of our stock that we have authority to issue. As of March 31, 2023, approximately 63,929,647 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding. Under Maryland law, stockholders are not generally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.
Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in our charter, each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote on all matters on which the stockholders of common stock are entitled to vote, including the election of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of shares of common stock will vote together as a single class and will possess the exclusive voting power. Each of our directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our directors.
Holders of shares of common stock generally have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights and generally have no appraisal rights unless our board of directors determines that appraisal rights apply, with respect to all or any such classes or series of stock, to one or more transactions occurring after the date of such determination in connection with which holders of such shares would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights. Holders of shares of common stock generally have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company; however, we have granted contractual top-up rights to certain stockholders, as discussed below under “Stockholders Agreements with Certain Investors.” Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as otherwise provided in our charter, shares of common stock have equal distribution, liquidation and other rights.
Power to Reclassify Our Unissued Shares of Stock
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of common stock or preferred stock into other classes or series of stock. Our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of common stock or preferred stock with terms and conditions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price on our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
 
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Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common Stock and Preferred Stock
We believe the power of our board of directors to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the number of authorized shares of stock, to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common stock or preferred stock and thereafter to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the additional shares of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such approval is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, a new class or series may delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders. See “Material Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws — Anti-takeover Effects of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws.”
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, our shares of stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. In addition, no more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) during the last half of any taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made). To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy other requirements as well. See “Federal Income Tax Considerations — Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”
Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our shares of common stock and other outstanding shares of stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own, by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock (the common stock ownership limit), or 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our capital stock (the aggregate stock ownership limit). We refer to the common stock ownership limit and the aggregate stock ownership limit collectively as the ownership limits. A person or entity that, but for operation of the ownership limits or another restriction on ownership and transfer of our stock as described below, would beneficially own or be deemed to beneficially own, by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, shares of our stock and/or, if appropriate in the context, a person or entity that would have been the record owner of such shares of our stock is referred to as a prohibited owner.
The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause shares of stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock or 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of all classes or series of our stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, shares of our stock) by an individual or entity, could, nevertheless, cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own shares constructively in excess of the ownership limits.
Our board of directors may, in its sole and absolute discretion and subject to the receipt of such certain representations, covenants and undertakings deemed reasonably necessary by the board of directors, prospectively or retroactively, exempt a person from the ownership limits and establish an excepted holder limit for such person. However, our board of directors may not exempt any person whose ownership of our outstanding stock would result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. In order to be considered by the board of directors for exemption, a person also must provide our board of directors with information and undertakings
 
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deemed satisfactory to our board of directors that such person’s ownership of stock in excess of the ownership limits would not cause us to own (directly or indirectly) an interest in a tenant that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code if the income derived by us (either directly or indirectly through one or more partnerships or limited liability companies) from such tenant for our taxable year during which such determination is being made would reasonably be expected to equal or exceed the lesser of (i) one percent (1%) of our gross income (as determined for purposes of Section 856(c) of the Code), or (ii) an amount that would cause us to fail to satisfy any of the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Code. The person also must agree that any violation or attempted violation of these restrictions will result in the automatic transfer to a trust of the shares of stock causing the violation. As a condition of its waiver, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or IRS ruling satisfactory to our board of directors with respect to our qualification as a REIT. We have granted a waiver to Star Holdings, a Maryland statutory trust (“Star Holdings”), and each entity in which Star Holdings owns a direct or indirect interest, to own up to 13,522,651 shares of our common stock in the aggregate.
In connection with the waiver of the ownership limits, creating an excepted holder limit or at any other time, our board of directors may, in its sole and absolute discretion, from time to time increase or decrease the ownership limits subject to the restrictions in the paragraph above; provided, however, that the ownership limits may not be decreased or increased if, after giving effect to such decrease or increase, five or fewer persons could own or beneficially own in the aggregate, more than 49.9% in value of our capital stock then outstanding. Prior to the modification of the ownership limits, our board of directors may require such opinions of counsel, affidavits, undertakings or agreements as it may deem necessary or advisable in order to determine or ensure our qualification as a REIT. Reduced ownership limits will not apply to any person or entity whose percentage ownership in our shares of common stock or stock of all classes and series, as applicable, is in excess of such decreased ownership limits until such time as such person’s or entity’s percentage ownership of our capital stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limits, but any further acquisition of shares of our capital stock in excess of such percentage ownership of our shares of capital stock will be in violation of the ownership limits.
Our charter further prohibits:

any person from beneficially or constructively owning (taking into account applicable attribution rules under the Code) shares of our stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT (including, without limitation, any person beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that would result in us owning (actually or constructively) an interest in a tenant that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code if the income derived by us from such tenant would cause us to fail to satisfy any of the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Code); and

any person from transferring our shares of stock if such transfer would result in our shares of stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined, as a general matter, without reference to any attribution rules).
Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limits or any of the foregoing restrictions on ownership and transfer will be required to give written notice immediately to us (or, in the case of a proposed or attempted acquisition, at least 15 days prior written notice to us) and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such transfer on our qualification as a REIT.
If any transfer of shares of our stock would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, such transfer will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. In addition, if any purported transfer of shares of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or such other limit established by our board of directors or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then generally that number of shares (rounded up to the nearest whole share) that would cause us to violate such restrictions will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the
 
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date of the violative transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner, prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid to the trustee upon demand for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary of the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable ownership limits, or our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT or the ownership and transfer restrictions described above, then our charter provides that the transfer of the shares will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares of stock.
Shares of stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, in the event of a gift, devise or other such transaction, the last reported sales price reported on the NYSE (or other applicable exchange) on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of stock to the trust) and (ii) the market price on the date we, or our designee, accepts such offer. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust pursuant to the clauses discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates, the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner but the trustee may reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions which have been paid to the prohibited owner and are owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. To the extent the prohibited owner would receive an amount for such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner would have been entitled to receive had the trustee sold the shares held in the trust to a third party, such excess shall be retained by the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary.
If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares of capital stock to a person designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limitations set forth in the charter. Upon such sale, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold shall terminate and the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, in the event of a gift, devise or other such transaction, the last reported sales price reported on the NYSE (or other applicable exchange) on the day of the event which resulted in the transfer of such shares of stock to the trust) and (ii) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee will reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions which have been paid to the prohibited owner and are owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the beneficiary of the trust and any dividend or other distribution paid to trustee shall be held in trust for the charitable beneficiary. In addition, if, prior to discovery by us that shares of stock have been transferred to a trust, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount will be paid to the trustee upon demand. The prohibited owner has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.
The trustee will be designated by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the beneficiary of the trust, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to the shares held in trust and may also exercise all voting rights with respect to the shares held in trust. These rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the beneficiary of the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid prior to our discovery that shares of stock have been transferred to the trust will be paid by the recipient to the trustee upon demand. Any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid will be paid when due to the trustee.
Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

to rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.
 
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However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.
In addition, if our board of directors determine that a proposed transfer would violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares of stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors will take such action as it deems or they deem advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem the shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.
Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of the outstanding shares of our capital stock at any time during our taxable year, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, is required to give us written notice, stating the stockholder’s name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the stockholder beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner must provide us with such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the stockholder’s beneficial ownership on our qualification as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, each stockholder must provide us with such information as we may request in order to determine our qualification as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.
Any certificates, or written statements of information delivered in lieu of certificates, representing shares of our stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.
These restrictions on ownership and transfer will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to qualify as a REIT or that compliance with such provisions is no longer required for REIT qualification.
These ownership limits could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.
Transfer Agent
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
Preferred Stock
When we offer to sell a particular class or series of preferred stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
General
Our charter provides that we may issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of March 31, 2023, we had no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding.
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of preferred stock into one or more classes or series of preferred stock. Prior to issuance of shares of each new class or series, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of each such class or series. As a result, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock that have priority over shares of our common stock with respect to dividends or other distributions or rights upon liquidation or with other terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests.
 
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The specific terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series, including a prospectus supplement providing that preferred stock may be issuable upon the exercise of warrants or the exercise or conversion of other securities we issue. The description of preferred stock set forth below and the description of the terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the articles supplementary or other charter provisions relating to that class or series.
Under Maryland law, stockholders are not generally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.
The preferences and other terms of the preferred stock of each class or series will be fixed by the articles supplementary relating to such class or series. A prospectus supplement, relating to each class or series, will specify the terms of the class or series of preferred stock as follows:

the designation and par value of such class or series of preferred stock,

the number of shares of such class or series of preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of such class or series of preferred stock,

the dividend rate(s), period(s), and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to such class or series of preferred stock,

whether dividends on such class or series of preferred stock are cumulative or not and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on such class or series of preferred stock shall accumulate,

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for such class or series of preferred stock,

the provision for redemption, if applicable, of such class or series of preferred stock,

any listing of such class or series of preferred stock on any securities exchange,

the preemptive rights, if any, of such class or series of preferred stock,

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which shares such class or series of preferred stock will be convertible into shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock or other securities, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof),

a discussion of any additional material federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in such class or series of preferred stock,

any limitations on actual, beneficial and constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to assist us to preserve our status as a REIT,

the relative ranking and preferences of such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,

any limitations on issuance of any class or series of stock ranking senior to or on parity with such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,

any voting rights of such class or series of preferred stock, and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of such class or series of preferred stock.
Rank
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each class or series of preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, rank: (1) senior to all classes or series of our common stock, and to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking junior to such class or series of preferred stock; (2) on parity with any class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking on parity with such class or series of preferred stock; and (3) junior to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking senior to such class or series of preferred stock.
 
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Conversion Rights
The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any shares of any class or series of preferred stock are convertible into shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock or other securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of our common stock or the number of shares of such other class or series of our stock or other securities into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof), the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of such class or series of preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of such class or series of preferred stock.
Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer
To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, we expect that each class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be subject to certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of such class or series of preferred stock set forth in our charter, including the articles supplementary for each such class or series. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any ownership limitations relating to such class or series. See “— Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” for a description of the restrictions on ownership and transfer applicable to shares of our common stock and to shares of our capital stock in the aggregate (including any and all classes or series of our preferred stock).
Caret Units
We have created units of limited liability company interest in our operating company, which we refer to as Caret units, that generally entitle holders to amounts equal to the net proceeds from the disposition of Ground Lease assets in excess of the cost borne by us to acquire such Ground Lease assets (including amounts paid to the tenant in connection with the initial development of improvements at the properties). However, we are entitled to deduct from the amount payable to holders of Caret units on account of such net proceeds: (i) accrued unpaid rent under the applicable Ground Lease; and (ii) (a) unrecovered acquisition costs borne by our operating company in connection with other Ground Lease assets that were disposed following the termination of the applicable Ground Lease by reason of default of tenants, and (b) unrecovered costs relating to the issuance, maintenance and management of Caret units as a separate security, among other costs. The number of authorized Caret units is a fixed amount. We have an equity incentive plan providing for grants of Caret units (the “Caret Plan”) to our directors, officers and employees and other eligible participants. Such grants are subject to stock price hurdles and time-based service conditions. As of March 31, 2023, we hold 8,000,000 Caret units, representing 82.2% of the then-outstanding Caret units and 66.67% of the then-authorized Caret units. As of March 31, 2023, participants in the CARET Plan hold 1,499,757 Caret units, representing 15.41% of the then-outstanding Caret units and 12.50% of the then-authorized Caret units. As of March 31, 2023, third-party investors hold 231,071 Caret units, representing 2.37% of the then-outstanding Caret units and 1.93% of the then-authorized Caret units. We may choose to sell a portion of the Caret units we hold to third parties in the future, which would reduce our percentage interest (and indirectly the interest of our stockholders) in cash distributions in respect of Caret units. Issuances of additional shares of our common stock will reduce an individual stockholder’s indirect interest in Caret units, while the interests of Caret unit holders are fixed. Conflicts of interest could arise between the interests of holders of Caret units and holders of our common stock with respect to decisions of whether to issue additional common stock and extend, sell or hold a Ground Lease or combined property in the future.
Stockholders’ Agreements with Certain Investors
SFTY Venture LLC.   In connection with our merger with Old Safehold, we assumed Old Safehold’s obligations under a stockholder’s agreement with SFTY Venture LLC, which made an investment in Old Safehold prior to its initial public offering. The stockholder’s agreement with SFTY Ventures LLC provides the investor the right to purchase additional shares of our common stock up to an amount equal to 10% of future issuances of common stock by us in single issuances of at least $1 million, and on a quarterly basis
 
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in respect of other issuances. The purchase price paid by SFTY Venture LLC will generally be the same price as the price per share implied by the transaction that resulted in the relevant issuance. SFTY Venture LLC will also have the right to designate a non-voting board observer and participate as a co-investor in real estate investments for which we are seeking co-investment partners. The foregoing rights are conditioned on SFTY Venture LLC owning at least the lesser of (i) 5.0% of our outstanding common stock and (ii) common stock with a value of $50 million. Based solely on a Schedule 13D filed with the SEC on December 27, 2021, SFTY Venture LLC holds 2,125,000 shares of common stock, or 3.3% based on approximately 63,929,647 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2023. GIC Real Estate, Inc., the investment manager for SFTY Venture LLC, has the power to vote and dispose of the 2,125,000 shares held directly by SFTY Venture LLC. GIC Real Estate, Inc. shares such powers with GIC Real Estate Private Limited and GIC Private Limited. In addition to the shares held by SFTY Ventures LLC, GIC Private Limited holds 2,123,435 shares of common stock. Jesse Hom, our director, is an employee of GIC Real Estate Private Limited, and affiliate of SFTY Venture LLC.
MSD Partners, L.P.   On August 10, 2022, iStar, Old Safehold and MSD Partners, L.P. (“MSD Partners”) entered into a stock purchase agreement pursuant to which MSD Partners agreed to purchase 5,405,406 shares of Old Safehold common stock from iStar for an aggregate purchase price of $200,000,022.00, or $37.00 per share, payable in cash (the “MSD Stock Purchase”). MSD Partners’ rights and obligations under the stock purchase agreement were subsequently assigned to certain of its affiliates. In connection with the closing of the MSD Stock Purchase on March 31, 2023, immediately prior to the effective time of the merger between us and Old Safehold, we and the affiliates of MSD Partners entered into a stockholder’s agreement (the “MSD Stockholder’s Agreement”), which became effective at the effective time of the merger between us and Old Safehold.
The stockholder’s agreement provides the affiliates of MSD Partners with a top-up right to purchase common stock of the Company following certain new issuances of common stock by us. In respect of a new issuance, the affiliates of MSD Partners will have the right to purchase a number of shares of our common stock equal to its proportionate share of the new issuance, based on the MSD Partners affiliates’ then current percentage ownership of our common stock. The MSD Partners affiliates will pay the same price to us as third parties paid in the new issuance. New issuances pursuant to our equity compensation plans are excluded from the MSD Partners affiliates’ right.
The stockholder’s agreement prohibits the MSD Partners affiliates from transferring any of our common stock it acquired in the MSD Stock Purchase on or before September 30, 2023, without our prior consent, not to be unreasonably withheld. Certain transfers to affiliates and bona fide pledges are excluded.
The stockholder’s agreement also provides that (i) the affiliates of MSD Partners will be subject to certain standstill restrictions and (ii) the affiliates of MSD Partners will have the right to designate an observer to our board of directors, in each case, until such time as MSD Partners and its affiliates own less than 5.0% of our outstanding common stock, as calculated in accordance with the stockholder’s agreement.
Star Holdings.   At the closing of our merger with Old Safehold, we entered into the governance agreement with Star Holdings, in order to establish various arrangements and restrictions with respect to the governance of our company, and certain rights and restrictions with respect to shares of our common stock owned by subsidiaries of Star Holdings, after the effective time of the merger.
Pursuant to the terms of the governance agreement, Star Holdings and its subsidiaries are subject to customary restrictions on the transfer of any of our common stock held by Star Holdings or its subsidiaries for nine months following the closing date. Furthermore, Star Holdings and its subsidiaries are prohibited from transferring at any time any shares of our common stock held by Star Holdings or its subsidiaries to any person who is known by Star Holdings or its subsidiaries to be an “Activist” or “Company Competitor” (as such terms are defined in the governance agreement), or to any group that, to the knowledge of Star Holdings or its subsidiaries, includes as “Activist” or “Company Competitor,” without first obtaining our prior written consent.
In addition, pursuant to the governance agreement, Star Holdings and its affiliates will be subject to customary standstill restrictions until the earliest to occur of: (a) the termination of the management agreement; (b) the date on which both (i) Star Holdings ceases to beneficially own at least 7.5% of the
 
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outstanding shares of our common stock and (ii) Star Holdings is no longer managed by us or our affiliates; or (c) a “change of control” of our company (as such term is defined in the governance agreement) (together, the “restrictive period”).
The standstill restrictions will limit Star Holdings’ and its affiliates’ purchases of additional shares of our common stock in excess of the ownership threshold then applicable to Star Holdings. The standstill restrictions will also restrict Star Holdings’ and its affiliates’ ability to, among other things, propose a merger or other acquisition transaction relating to all or part of our company, call a special meeting of the stockholders, submit any stockholder proposal, participate in a group for such actions, enter into any voting trust or other agreement with respect to the voting of our common stock, or seek a change in the composition of our board of directors (including seeking representation on the board).
In addition, during the restrictive period, Star Holdings and its subsidiaries will vote all shares of our common stock owned by them (a) in favor all persons nominated to serve as our directors by our board of directors or its nominating and corporate governance committee, (b) against any stockholder proposal that is not recommended by our board of directors and (c) in accordance with the recommendations of our board of directors on all other proposals brought before our stockholders.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
As used in this “Description of Debt Securities,” references to “we,” “our” or “us” refer either to Safehold Inc. or Safehold GL Holdings LLC, as the case may be, as the issuer of the applicable series of debt securities and not to any subsidiaries, unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus, including the terms of any related guarantees. We will also indicate in the prospectus supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.
We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.
Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association, as trustee. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and you should read the indenture and debt securities carefully for provisions that may be important to you. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined in this prospectus have the meanings specified in the indenture.
General
The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of the board of directors of Safehold Inc., in its own capacity (with respect to debt securities of Safehold Inc.) or in its capacity as the managing member of Safehold GL Holdings LLC (with respect to debt securities of Safehold GL Holdings LLC), and set forth or determined in the manner provided in such resolution, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series, including any pricing supplement or term sheet.
Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, the indenture will designate U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association as the trustee for the indenture with respect to one or more series of our debt securities. U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association, or any other specified trustee, may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of our debt securities, and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to that series.
We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement, including any pricing supplement or term sheet, relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, to the extent applicable:

whether the issuer of the debt securities is Safehold Inc. or Safehold GL Holdings LLC,

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions),

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities,

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities,

the date or dates on which the principal on the debt securities is payable,

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index)
 
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at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date,

the place or places where principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be payable, the method of such payment, where debt securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to us relating to the debt securities may be delivered,

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities,

any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the debt securities shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation,

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations,

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof,

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities,

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount,

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be U.S. dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency,

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities will be made,

if payments of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined,

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or designated to be payable or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index,

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities or any guarantees,

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default (as defined below) described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities,

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities,

a discussion of any additional material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to an investment in the debt securities,

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities,

the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether
 
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conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange,

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities,

whether the debt securities are entitled to the benefits of the guarantee of any guarantor, and whether any such guarantee is made on a senior or subordinated basis and, if applicable, a description of the subordination terms of any such guarantee,

whether a person other than U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association is to act as trustee,

the securities exchange, if any, on which the debt securities may be listed, and

any change in the right of the trustee or the right of the requisite holders to declare the principal amount of debt securities due and payable.
We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of, and any premium and interest on, any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Transfer and Exchange
Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary or DTC, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.
Certificated Debt Securities.   You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.
You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, and any premium and interest on, certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.
Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System.   Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary.
No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) that could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
 
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Covenants
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.
Merger, Consolidation or Sale
We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to, any person (such person, a “successor person”), unless:
(1) we are the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than Safehold Inc. or Safehold GL Holdings LLC) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and
(2) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.
We must deliver to the trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an officer’s certificate to the foregoing effect and an opinion of counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with the indenture.
In the event of any transaction described in and complying with the conditions listed in the immediately preceding paragraphs in which we are not the continuing entity, the successor person formed or remaining shall succeed, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of ours, and we shall be discharged from our obligations under the debt securities and the indenture.
Guarantees
Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities issued by Safehold GL Holdings LLC will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Safehold Inc. These guarantees will be joint and several obligations of the guarantor. If a series of debt securities is so guaranteed, an indenture, or a supplemental indenture thereto, will be executed by the guarantor. The obligations of the guarantor under the guarantee will be limited as necessary to prevent that guarantee from constituting a fraudulent conveyance under applicable law. The terms of the guarantee will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Events of Default
The following events constitute Events of Default, unless otherwise provided by resolution of the board of directors, supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate:
(a) default in the payment of any interest on any debt security when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period);
(b) default in the payment of principal of any debt security at maturity;
(c) default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty by us under the debt security of that series or the indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to us by the trustee, or to us and the trustee by the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a notice of default;
(d) certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us, or any guarantor;
 
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(e) any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series, which is specified in a resolution of the board of directors, a supplemental indenture to the indenture or an officer’s certificate, in accordance with the applicable provisions of the indenture.
“Default” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.
No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our or our subsidiaries’ indebtedness outstanding from time to time.
If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then in every such case the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare the principal amount (or, if any securities of that series are discount securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such debt securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, will become immediately due and payable. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice in writing to our operating company and the trustee, may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.
The indenture provides that the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense that might be incurred by it in exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.
No holder of any debt security shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:
(a) such holder has previously given written notice to the trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the debt securities;
(b) the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities have made written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as trustee;
(c) such holder or holders have offered to the trustee indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, claims, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred by the trustee in compliance with such request;
(d) the trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and
 
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(e) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the trustee during such 60-day period by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities.
Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, and any premium and interest on, that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.
The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the debt securities of any series and if it is known to a Responsible Officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each holder of the debt securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.
Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
Legal Defeasance.   The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, money and/or Foreign Government Obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, any premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.
This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.
Defeasance of Certain Covenants.   The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Merger, Consolidation or Sale” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, and

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series, or covenant defeasance.
The conditions include:

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, money and/or Foreign Government Obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, any premium and interest on,
 
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and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities, and

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.
Covenant Defeasance and Events of Default.   In the event we exercise our option to effect covenant defeasance with respect to any series of debt securities and the debt securities of that series are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of money and/or U.S. government obligations or money and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee will be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of the acceleration resulting from the Event of Default. In such a case, we would remain liable for those payments.
“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
Satisfaction and Discharge
The indenture will be discharged and will cease to be of further effect (except as to surviving rights or registration of transfer or exchange of the debt securities, as expressly provided for in the indenture) as to all outstanding debt securities when:

either:

all the debt securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (except lost, stolen or destroyed debt securities which have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the trustee for cancellation; or

all debt securities not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation have become due and payable or will become due and payable at their maturity within one year, have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year, or are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to the legal defeasance provisions of the indenture, and we have irrevocably deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited with the trustee as trust funds in trust cash or noncallable U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such debt securities not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of debt securities which have become due and payable) or to the maturity date or redemption date, as the case may be;

we have paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable under the indenture by us; and

we have delivered to the trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in the indenture relating to the satisfaction and discharge of the indenture have been complied with.
Modification and Waiver
We and the trustee may modify and amend the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency,

to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Merger, Consolidation or Sale,”
 
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to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities; provided that the uncertificated debt securities are issued in registered form for purposes of Section 163(f) of the Code,

to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture,

to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series,

to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary,

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities,

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture,

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee,

to comply with requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act,

to reflect the release of a guarantor of the debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture, or

to add guarantors with respect to any or all of the debt securities or to secure any or all of the debt securities or the guarantees.
We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

reduce the principal amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver,

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security,

reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities,

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity,

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration),

make the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security payable in any currency other than that stated in the debt security,

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments,

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security, provided that such redemption is made at our operating company’s option, or

if the debt securities of that series are entitled to the benefit of a guarantee, release any guarantor of such series other than as provided in the indenture or modify the guarantee in any manner adverse to the holders.
Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series
 
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waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all of the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.
Regarding the Trustee
Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association will initially act as the trustee, registrar and paying agent for the debt securities, subject to replacement at our option as provided in the indenture.
If an Event of Default occurs and is continuing, the trustee will be required to use the same degree of care and skill a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee will become obligated to exercise any of its powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the required percentage under the indenture only after those holders have offered, and, if requested, provided the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it.
If the trustee becomes one of our creditors, it will be subject to limitations on its rights to obtain payment of claims or to realize on some property received for any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions with us. If, however, it acquires any conflicting interest, it must eliminate that conflict or resign.
No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders
No director, officer, employee, or stockholder will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities, the indenture, any guarantees or for any claim based on, in respect of, or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. Each holder of debt securities by accepting a note waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for issuance of the debt securities. The waiver may not be effective to waive liabilities under the federal securities laws.
Governing Law
The indenture, the debt securities and any guarantees will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement a description of any depositary shares, warrants, rights or units issued by us that may be offered and sold pursuant to this prospectus.
 
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GLOBAL SECURITIES
Book-Entry, Delivery and Form
Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.
DTC has advised us that it is:

a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

a member of the Federal Reserve System;

a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.
DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.
Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.
To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.
So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.
 
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Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.
Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.
Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.
So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below and unless if otherwise provided in the description of the applicable securities herein or in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.
Payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.
Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.
The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.
As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;

we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or
 
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an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,
we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.
Euroclear and Clearstream
If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, you may hold interests in a global security through Clearstream Banking S.A., which we refer to as “Clearstream,” or Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System, which we refer to as “Euroclear,” either directly if you are a participant in Clearstream or Euroclear or indirectly through organizations which are participants in Clearstream or Euroclear. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their respective participants through customers’ securities accounts in the names of Clearstream and Euroclear, respectively, on the books of their respective U.S. depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in such depositaries’ names on DTC’s books.
Clearstream and Euroclear are securities clearance systems in Europe. Clearstream and Euroclear hold securities for their respective participating organizations and facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between those participants through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates.
Payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to beneficial interests in global securities owned through Euroclear or Clearstream must comply with the rules and procedures of those systems. Transactions between participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on one hand, and other participants in DTC, on the other hand, are also subject to DTC’s rules and procedures.
Investors will be able to make and receive through Euroclear and Clearstream payments, deliveries, transfers and other transactions involving any beneficial interests in global securities held through those systems only on days when those systems are open for business. Those systems may not be open for business on days when banks, brokers and other institutions are open for business in the United States.
Cross-market transfers between participants in DTC, on the one hand, and participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with the DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by their respective U.S. depositaries; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (European time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the global securities through DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day fund settlement. Participants in Euroclear or Clearstream may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.
Due to time zone differences, the securities accounts of a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream purchasing an interest in a global security from a direct participant in DTC will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant participant in Euroclear or Clearstream, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear or Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a global security by or through a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream to a direct participant in DTC will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.
Other
The information in this section of this prospectus concerning DTC, Clearstream, Euroclear and their respective book-entry systems has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we do not
 
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take responsibility for this information. This information has been provided solely as a matter of convenience. The rules and procedures of DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear are solely within the control of those organizations and could change at any time. Neither we nor the trustee nor any agent of ours or of the trustee has any control over those entities and none of us takes any responsibility for their activities. You are urged to contact DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants directly to discuss those matters. In addition, although we expect that DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear will perform the foregoing procedures, none of them is under any obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time. Neither we nor any agent of ours will have any responsibility for the performance or nonperformance by DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants of these or any other rules or procedures governing their respective operations.
 
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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS
Information about selling securityholders, where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment or in filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference.
 
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MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”
Our Board of Directors
Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established, increased or decreased only by a majority of our entire board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number required by the MGCL nor, unless our bylaws are amended, more than 15.
Each of our directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Holders of shares of our common stock will have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Directors are elected by a plurality of all the votes cast in the election of directors at any meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present.
Removal of Directors
Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, any director or the entire board of directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. Cause means, with respect to any particular director, a conviction of a felony or a final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction holding that such director caused demonstrable, material harm to us through bad faith or active and deliberate dishonesty.
Business Combinations
Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” ​(including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in certain circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock or an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation) or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any such business combination must generally be recommended by the board of directors of such corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least (i) 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding voting stock of the corporation and (ii) two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares. A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. The board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by it.
These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the statute, our board of directors has by resolution exempted business combinations between us and any other person and, consequently, the five-year prohibition and the supermajority vote requirements will not apply to business combinations between us and any person as described above. As a result, any person described above may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interest of our stockholders without compliance by our company with the supermajority vote requirements and other provisions of the statute.
 
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We cannot assure you our board of directors will not opt to be subject to such business combination provisions in the future. However, an alteration or repeal of the resolution described above will not have any effect on any business combinations that have been consummated or upon any agreements existing at the time of such modification or repeal. If our board of directors opts back into the business combination statute, the business combination statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.
Control Share Acquisitions
The MGCL provides that “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights except to the extent approved by the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of such shares in the election of directors: (i) a person who makes or proposes to make a control share acquisition; (ii) an officer of the corporation; or (iii) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer, or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power: (a) one-tenth or more but less than one-third; (b) one-third or more but less than a majority; or (c) a majority or more of all voting power. Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, of ownership of, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders’ meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer or of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition. The control share acquisition statute does not apply to (i) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (ii) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.
Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. There is no assurance that such provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.
Subtitle 8
Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions:

a classified board;

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;
 
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a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; or

a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.
We have not elected to be subject to any of the provisions of Subtitle 8. Moreover, our charter provides that, without the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast on the matter by our stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, we may not elect to be subject to any of the provisions of Subtitle 8.
Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws
Our charter generally may be amended only with the approval of our board of directors and the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, our board of directors, without stockholder approval, has the power under our charter to amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we are authorized to issue, to authorize us to issue authorized but unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock into one or more classes or series of stock and set the terms of such newly classified or reclassified shares. See “Description of Common Stock — Power to Reclassify Our Unissued Shares of Stock” and “Description of Common Stock — Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common Stock and Preferred Stock.”
Our bylaws provide that the board of directors has the power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws. In addition, pursuant to a binding stockholder proposal, our stockholders have the power to alter, amend or repeal our bylaws by the affirmative vote of a majority of all votes entitled to be case on the matter.
Dissolution of Our Company
The dissolution of our company must be declared advisable by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of the stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Exclusive Forum
Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that Court does not have jurisdiction, the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, is the sole and exclusive forum for: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by us or by any director or officer or other employee of the Company to us or our stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of the Company arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of the Company that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
Meetings of Stockholders
Under our bylaws, annual meetings of stockholders must be held each year at a date, time and place determined by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer, our president and our board of directors. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures specified in our bylaws and provided the information and certifications required by our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of a special meeting of stockholders may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting.
 
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Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business
Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by stockholders may be made only (i) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (ii) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (iii) by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record at the record date set by the board of directors for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to vote at the annual meeting, at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting (and any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other business and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.
With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only (i) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (ii) provided that the special meeting has been called in accordance with our bylaws for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record at the record date set by the board of directors for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to vote at the special meeting, at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the special meeting (and any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in our bylaws.
Such provisions may have the effect of precluding the consideration of stockholder proposals, including stockholder nominations for the election of directors, if proper procedures are not followed and of discouraging or deterring a third party from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors or to approve its own proposal without regard to whether consideration of such nominees or proposals might be harmful or beneficial to us and our stockholders.
Anti-Takeover Effects of Maryland Law and our Charter and Bylaws
Our charter and bylaws and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for our shares of common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders, including restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the power of our board to authorize additional shares of capital stock and classify or reclassify capital stock without stockholder approval, limitations on the removal of directors and advance notice requirements for director nominations and stockholder proposals. Likewise, if the provision in the bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were to be rescinded, if the Company were to opt into the business combination provisions of the MGCL, or if our stockholders were to approve the Company’s election to be subject to a classified board or other provisions of Subtitle 8, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.
Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Executive Officers’ Liability
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that was established by a final judgment and was material to the cause of action. Our charter contains such a provision and eliminates the liability of our directors and executive officers to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (i) was committed in bad faith or (ii) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;
 
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the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer in a suit by or in the right of the corporation, in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to the corporation or in any proceeding charging improper personal benefit in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by the corporation or in its right, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.
In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon the corporation’s receipt of:

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.
Our charter and bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

any present or former director or officer who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity;

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made, or threatened to be made, a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

any individual who served any predecessor of our company in a similar capacity, who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in the proceeding by reason of his or her service in such capacity.
Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers providing for the indemnification by us for certain liabilities and expenses incurred as a result of actions brought, or threatened to be brought, against (i) our directors and executive officers and (ii) our executive officers who are former members, managers, stockholders, directors, limited partners, general partners, officers or controlling persons of our predecessor in their capacities as such. Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
Restriction on Ownership and Transfer
Subject to certain exceptions, our charter provides that no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 9.8% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the
 
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aggregate outstanding shares of our stock. For a fuller description of this and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, see “Description of Common Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”
REIT Qualification
Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to be qualified as a REIT. Our charter also provides that our board of directors may determine that compliance with one or more of the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.
 
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FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our election to be taxed as a REIT and this offering of our capital stock. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Safehold Inc. and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

the Code;

current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code, or the Treasury Regulations;

the legislative history of the Code;

administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS; and

court decisions;
in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Moreover, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock or our operating company’s debt securities, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.
You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

potential changes in applicable tax laws.
Taxation of Our Company
General.   We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our initial taxable year ended December 31, 1998. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized or will
 
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be able to operate in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “— Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.
Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with the filing of this prospectus. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us, as of the date of this prospectus, to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2019, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described herein may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.
Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

First, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property. See “— Foreclosure Property.”

Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

Fifth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset test), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as
 
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described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

Ninth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations and are not qualified REIT subsidiaries, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” described below, generally will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

Tenth, we will generally be subject to tax on the portion of any “excess inclusion income” derived from an investment in residual interests in certain mortgage loan securitization structures (i.e., a “taxable mortgage pool,” or TMP, or a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit, or a REMIC) to the extent that our capital stock is held by specified types of tax-exempt organizations known as “disqualified organizations” that are not subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI. To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a TMP through a taxable REIT subsidiary, or a TRS, we will not be subject to this tax. See “— Taxable Mortgage Pools.”

Eleventh, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “— Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

Twelfth, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

Thirteenth, if we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined under applicable Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or is due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.
We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.
 
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Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.   The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:
(1)
that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
(2)
that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;
(3)
that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;
(4)
that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;
(5)
that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;
(6)
not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and
(7)
that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.
The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.
We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7), inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Description of Capital Stock — Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, then except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “— Failure to Qualify.”
In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.
Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries.   In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership (for purposes of this discussion, references to “partnership” include a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and references to “partner” include a member in such a limited liability company), Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of our operating company, including our operating company’s share of these items of any partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. A
 
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brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships is set forth below in “— Tax Aspects of Our Operating Company, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”
We have control of our operating company and most of its subsidiary partnerships and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If a partnership we do not control takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In such a case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.
We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through wholly-owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal income tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “— Asset Tests.”
Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries.   We and our operating company own interests in companies that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A TRS is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT is not treated as holding the assets of a taxable REIT subsidiary or as receiving any income that the taxable REIT subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by the taxable REIT subsidiary is an asset in the hands of the REIT, and the REIT generally recognizes as income the dividends, if any, that it receives from the taxable REIT subsidiary. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “— Asset Tests.” Taxpayers are subject to a limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest generally equal to 30% of adjusted taxable income, subject to certain exceptions.. See “— Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not certain, this provision may limit the ability of our taxable REIT subsidiaries to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.
Ownership of Interests in Subsidiary REITs.   We own and may acquire direct or indirect interests in one or more entities that have elected or will elect to be taxed as REITs under the Code (each, a “Subsidiary REIT”). A Subsidiary REIT is subject to the various REIT qualification requirements and other limitations described herein that are applicable to us. If a Subsidiary REIT were to fail to qualify as a REIT, then (i) that Subsidiary REIT would become subject to U.S. federal income tax and (ii) the Subsidiary REIT’s failure to qualify could have an adverse effect on our ability to comply with the REIT income and asset tests, and thus could impair our ability to qualify as a REIT unless we could avail ourselves of certain relief provisions.
Taxable Mortgage Pools.   An entity, or a portion of an entity, may be classified as a TMP under the Code if:

substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;
 
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more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates;

the entity has issued debt obligations that have two or more maturities; and

the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.
Under applicable Treasury Regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consist of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a TMP. We may enter into financing and securitization arrangements that give rise to TMPs.
A TMP generally is treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, special rules apply to a REIT, a portion of a REIT, or a qualified REIT subsidiary that is a TMP. If a REIT owns directly, or indirectly through one or more qualified REIT subsidiaries or other entities that are disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, 100% of the equity interests in the TMP, the TMP will be a qualified REIT subsidiary and, therefore, disregarded as an entity separate from the REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and would not generally affect the tax qualification of the REIT. Rather, the consequences of the TMP classification would generally be limited to the REIT’s stockholders. See “— Excess Inclusion Income.”
Excess Inclusion Income.   A portion of income from a TMP arrangement, which might be non-cash accrued income, could be treated as “excess inclusion income.” A REIT’s excess inclusion income, including any excess inclusion income from a residual interest in a REMIC, must be allocated among its stockholders in proportion to dividends paid. We generally do not expect to generate excess inclusion income that would be allocated to our stockholders. In the event we do generate excess inclusion income, we are required to notify our stockholders of the amount of such income allocated to them. A stockholder’s share of excess inclusion income:

cannot be offset by any net operating losses otherwise available to the stockholder;

in the case of a stockholder that is a REIT, a regulated investment company, or a RIC, or a common trust fund or other pass-through entity, is considered excess inclusion income of such entity;

is subject to tax as UBTI in the hands of most types of stockholders that are otherwise generally exempt from U.S. federal income tax;

results in the application of U.S. federal income tax withholding at the maximum rate (30%), without reduction for any otherwise applicable income tax treaty or other exemption, to the extent allocable to most types of non-U.S. stockholders; and

is taxable at the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate, currently 21%, to the REIT, rather than its stockholders, to the extent allocable to the REIT’s shares held in record name by disqualified organizations (generally, tax-exempt entities not subject to unrelated business income tax, including governmental organizations).
The manner in which excess inclusion income is calculated, or would be allocated to our stockholders, including allocations among shares of different classes of stock, is not clear under current law. As required by IRS guidance, we intend to make such determinations using a reasonable method.
Tax-exempt investors, RIC or REIT investors, non-U.S. investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above, and are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our capital stock.
If a subsidiary partnership of ours that we do not wholly own, directly or through one or more disregarded entities, were a TMP, the foregoing rules would not apply. Rather, the partnership that is a TMP would be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and potentially would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax or withholding tax. In addition, this characterization would alter our income and asset test calculations, and could adversely affect our compliance with those requirements. We intend to monitor the structure of any TMPs in which we will have an interest to ensure that they will not adversely affect our qualification as a REIT.
 
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Income Tests.   We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing.
Interest Income.   Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by a mortgage on real property. If we receive interest income with respect to a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and other property, and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property on the date that we acquired or originated the mortgage loan, then, subject to the exception described below, the interest income will be apportioned between the real property and the other property, and our income from the loan will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test only to the extent that the interest is allocable to the real property. If a loan is secured by both real property and personal property and the fair market value of the personal property does not exceed 15% of the fair market value of all real and personal property securing the loan, the loan is treated as secured solely by the real property for purposes of these rules. Even if a loan is not secured by real property or is undersecured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% gross income test. In certain cases, the terms of a negotiated Ground Lease transaction may be determined to have a financing component pursuant to which we may be considered as receiving interest income. To the extent all or a portion of a Ground Lease were treated as a financing for tax purposes, we believe such financing should be considered as secured by real property because of our ability to take back the leasehold interest upon default under the Ground Lease, and therefore such treatment should not adversely impact our ability to satisfy the REIT gross income tests.
To the extent that we derive interest income from a loan where all or a portion of the amount of interest payable is contingent, such income generally will qualify for purposes of the gross income tests only if it is based upon the gross receipts or sales and not the net income or profits of any person. This limitation does not apply, however, to a mortgage loan where the borrower derives substantially all of its income from the property from the leasing of substantially all of its interest in the property to tenants, to the extent that the rental income derived by the borrower would qualify as rents from real property had we earned it directly.
To the extent that the terms of a loan provide for contingent interest that is based on the cash proceeds realized upon the sale of the property securing the loan (or a shared appreciation provision), income attributable to the participation feature will be treated as gain from sale of the underlying property, which generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided that the property is not inventory or dealer property of the borrower or ours.
Any amount includible in our gross income with respect to a regular or residual interest in a REMIC generally is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property. If, however, less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consists of real estate assets (determined as if we held such assets), we will be treated as receiving directly our proportionate share of the income of the REMIC for purposes of determining the amount that is treated as interest on an obligation secured by a mortgage on real property.
Among the assets we may hold are certain mezzanine loans secured by equity interests in a pass-through entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than a direct mortgage on the real property. The IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2003-65, or the Revenue Procedure, which provides a safe harbor pursuant to which a mezzanine loan will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, and interest derived from it will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. From time to time, we may own mezzanine loans that do not meet all of the requirements for reliance on this safe harbor. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the qualification of any mezzanine loans we may own as real estate assets or the interest
 
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generated by such loans as qualifying income under the 75% gross income test. If we acquire or make corporate mezzanine loans or other commercial real estate corporate loans, such loans will not qualify as real estate assets and interest income with respect to such loans will not be qualifying income for the 75% gross income test. To the extent that such non-qualification causes us to fail the 75% gross income test, we could be required to pay a penalty tax or fail to qualify as a REIT.
Fee Income.   We may receive various fees in connection with our operations. The fees generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if they are received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real property and the fees are not determined by the income or profits of any person. Other fees are not qualifying income for purposes of either the 75% or 95% gross income test. Any fees earned by a TRS are not included for purposes of the gross income tests.
Dividend Income.   We may receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions generally will be classified as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions generally will constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. Any dividends we receive from a REIT will be qualifying income in our hands for purposes of both the 95% and 75% gross income tests.
Rents from Real Property.   Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales or if it is based on the net income of a tenant which derives substantially all of its income with respect to such property from subleasing of substantially all of such property, to the extent that the rents paid by the subtenants would qualify as rents from real property if we earned such amounts directly;

Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;

Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a taxable REIT subsidiary; and

We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform servic